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Babies Born with Congenital CMV



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When a baby is born with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, it is called congenital CMV. Most babies with congenital CMV never show signs or have health problems. However, some babies have health problems at birth or that develop later.

Some babies with congenital CMV infection have signs at birth, such as: 

  • Rash
  • Jaundice (yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes)
  • Microcephaly (small head)
  • Low birth weight
  • Hepatosplenomegaly (enlarged liver and spleen)
  • Seizures
  • Retinitis (damaged eye retina)

Some babies with signs of congenital CMV infection at birth can have long-term health problems, such as:

  • Hearing loss
  • Developmental and motor delay
  • Vision loss
  • Microcephaly (small head)
  • Seizures

Some babies can have hearing loss at birth or can develop it later, even babies who passed the newborn hearing test or didn’t have any other sings at birth.   

CMV is the most common infectious cause of birth defects in the United States. About 1 out of 200 babies is born with congenital CMV.

One out of 5 babies with congenital CMV will have symptoms or long-term health problems, such as hearing loss.

In the most severe cases, CMV can cause pregnancy loss. 

Most people with CMV infection have no symptoms and aren’t aware that they have been infected. If you are pregnant and get infected with CMV, you can pass the virus to your baby during pregnancy. This can happen when you are infected with CMV for the first time or again during pregnancy.

Young children are a common source of CMV.

By the age of 5 years, one in three children has been infected with CMV, but usually does not have symptoms. The virus can stay in a child’s body fluids like saliva and urine for months after the infection. People who are around young children a lot are at greater risk of CMV infection.

Parents and childcare providers can lower their risk of getting CMV by reducing contact with saliva (spit) and urine from babies and young children.

  • Do not share food, utensils, or cups with a child.
  • Wash your hands with soap and water after changing diapers or helping a child to use the toilet.

Congenital CMV infection can be diagnosed by testing a newborn baby’s urine (preferred specimen), saliva, or blood. These specimens must be collected for testing within 2 to 3 weeks after the baby is born to confirm a diagnosis of congenital CMV infection.

For babies with signs of congenital CMV infection at birth, antiviral medications (primarily valganciclovir) might improve hearing and developmental outcomes. Valganciclovir can have serious side effects and has only been studied in babies with signs of congenital CMV infection. There is limited information on the effectiveness of valganciclovir to treat infants with hearing loss alone.





Last Reviewed: May 27, 2022

Source: National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Division of Viral Diseases

  • Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives
  • Basics about Hearing Loss in Children
  • CMV Facts for Pregnant Women and Parents

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) – sometimes known as «cot death» – is the sudden, unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently healthy baby.

In the UK, around 200 babies die suddenly and unexpectedly every year. This statistic may sound alarming, but SIDS is rare and the risk of your baby dying from it is low.

Most deaths happen during the first 6 months of a baby’s life. Infants born prematurely or with a low birthweight are at greater risk. SIDS also tends to be slightly more common in baby boys.

SIDS usually occurs when a baby is asleep, although it can occasionally happen while they’re awake.

Parents can reduce the risk of SIDS by not smoking while pregnant or after the baby is born, and always placing the baby on their back when they sleep.

Find out how to stop smoking.

What causes SIDS?

The exact cause of SIDS is unknown, but it’s thought to be down to a combination of factors.

Experts believe SIDS occurs at a particular stage in a baby’s development and that it affects babies vulnerable to certain environmental stresses.

This vulnerability may be caused by being born prematurely or having a low birthweight, or because of other reasons that have not been identified yet. 

Environmental stresses could include tobacco smoke, getting tangled in bedding, a minor illness or a breathing obstruction. There’s also an association between sleeping with your baby on a sofa or chair and SIDS.

Babies who die of SIDS are thought to have problems in the way they respond to these stresses and how they regulate their heart rate, breathing and temperature.

Although the cause of SIDS is not fully understood, there are a number of things you can do to reduce the risk.

What can I do to help prevent SIDS?

Do

  • always place your baby on their back to sleep

  • place your baby in the «feet to foot» position – with their feet touching the end of the cot, Moses basket, or pram

  • keep your baby’s head uncovered – their blanket should be tucked in no higher than their shoulders

  • let your baby sleep in the same room as you for the first 6 months

  • make sure there are no pillows or duvets near your baby if you share a bed with them

  • keep other children and pets out of the bed if you share a bed with your baby

  • use a mattress that’s firm, flat, waterproof and in good condition

  • breastfeed your baby, if you can – see benefits of breastfeeding for more information

  • make sure you use a sling or baby-carrier safely – The Lullaby Trust has more information

Don’t

  • do not share a bed with your baby if you or your partner smoke or take recreational drugs, have had 2 or more units of alcohol or have taken medicine that causes drowsiness

  • do not share a bed with your baby if they weighed under 2. 5kg when they were born

  • do not smoke during pregnancy or let anyone smoke in the same room as your baby – both before and after birth

  • do not sleep on a sofa or armchair with your baby

  • do not let your baby get too hot or too cold – a room temperature of 16C to 20C, with light bedding or a lightweight baby sleeping bag, will provide a comfortable sleeping environment for your baby

Read more about reducing the risk of SIDS.

Seeking medical advice if your baby is unwell

Babies often have minor illnesses that you do not need to worry about. Give your baby plenty of fluids to drink and do not let them get too hot.

If you’re worried about your baby at any point, see your GP or call NHS 111 for advice.

Read more about spotting signs of serious illness in children.

Immediate action required: Dial 999 for an ambulance if your baby:

  • stops breathing or turns blue
  • is struggling for breath
  • is unconscious or seems unaware of what’s going on
  • will not wake up
  • has a fit for the first time, even if they seem to recover

Support services

If a baby dies suddenly and unexpectedly, there will need to be an investigation into how and why they died. A post-mortem examination will usually be necessary, which can be very distressing for the family.

The police and healthcare professionals work closely to investigate unexpected infant deaths and ensure the family is supported. They should be able to put you in touch with local sources of help and support.

Many people find talking to others who have had similar experiences helps them to cope with their bereavement.

The Lullaby Trust provides advice and support for bereaved families. Specially trained advisers are available on its helpline – the number is 0808 802 6868 and it’s open Monday to Friday (10am to 5pm), and at weekends and public holidays (6pm to 10pm).

You can also email [email protected] or visit the Lullaby Trust website for further information and support.

Read more about bereavement.

Page last reviewed: 27 October 2021
Next review due: 27 October 2024

«You just crushed him, baby.» The Olympic champion from South Africa Skunmaker congratulated the Russian woman Chikunova, who broke her record :: Others :: RBC Sport

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Tatyana Skunmaker said that Evgenia Chikunova simply “crushed” her world record in the 200m breaststroke. According to the South African athlete, she would like to hug the Russian woman now

Evgenia Chikunova

(Photo: Egor Aleev / TASS)

South African Olympic champion Tatyana Skunmaker congratulated on her Instagram (the owner of the social network company Meta is recognized as an extremist organization in Russia and banned) Russian woman Evgenia Chikunova, who broke her world record in the 200 m breaststroke.

“Yes, yes, yes! You just crushed it, baby. Congratulations! How I wish I could give you a big hug right now,” Schoonmaker wrote on her story.

Photo: Social networks of Tatyana Schoonmaker

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The day before, 18-year-old Chikunova in the final swim at the Russian Championship in Kazan showed a result of 2 minutes 17.55 seconds. This is faster than the world record set by Schoonmaker from South Africa (2:18.95), which was set at the Tokyo Olympics.

The decision to ratify the world record must be made by the International Swimming Federation (World Aquatics). Russian swimmers are now suspended from international competitions.

Author

Ivan Vitchenko

swimming
Evgenia Chikunova

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