24 hour clock resources: 24 Hour Clock Conversion Worksheets

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24-Hour Clock Time Conversion Table and Other Useful Tools for Email Marketers and Communicators

Email is one of today’s most effective marketing channels because you’re communicating directly with your audiences who want to hear from you. This opens up endless possibilities to strengthen long-term relationships and to learn what people like about your products and services.

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Communicating with audiences around the globe presents both an exciting opportunity as well as some unique challenges and considerations. Here are some helpful resources to avoid confusion and get your best results.

24-Hour Clock Time Conversion

Naturally, there are differences to consider from one country and culture to another, and one of the most practical ones is the timing of your communications. As a refresher, the United States uses an AM and PM format, whereas the 24-hour clock, sometimes referred to as military time, is more commonly used in Europe. Here’s a handy table to help you easily convert AM and PM times to a 24-hour clock time format.

24-Hour Clock Time Conversion Table

1 AM


2 AM


3 AM


4 AM


5 AM


6 AM


7 AM


8 AM


9 AM


10 AM


11 AM


12 PM


1 PM


2 PM


3 PM


4 PM


5 PM


6 PM


7 PM


8 PM


9 PM


10 PM


11 PM


12 AM


International Time Zones

Another time-related aspect to stay on top of is time zones. For instance, you may be planning your email marketing and communication campaigns from your office in New York, while your target audiences are in Paris. In this case, you’ll need to convert Eastern Time (ET) for New York to Central European Time (CET) for Paris.

Time Zones on Wikipedia »

Daylight Saving Time (DST)

Twice a year, you’ll need to factor in Daylight Saving Time (DST), in which many countries adjust their clocks. Each country determines its specific time change procedures. These clock adjustments are made in the spring and fall, usually from mid-to-late-March and late-October to early November. As some marketing content is seasonal, be sure to keep in mind that spring in the Northern Hemisphere begins in March, while March marks the start of autumn in the Southern Hemisphere.

Daylight Saving Time on Wikipedia »

Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)

UTC is the time standard used in clocks around the world. It is used for international coordination because with UTC there is no risk of confusion about the various time zones. UTC in any locality is designated as UTC- in the west or UTC+ in the east.

Coordinated Universal Time on Wikipedia »

Date Formats (YYYY-MM-DD)

A reminder that date formats are presented differently in different countries. The order of the numbers can vary, for instance from YYYY-MM-DD to DD-MM-YYYY.

Date Format by Country on Wikipedia »

International Holidays

As you know, holidays and special celebrations differ from one country to another. So before planning the date and time to send your communications, be sure to check the national holidays and other important observances of your target audience locations.

List of Holidays by Country on Wikipedia »

Email Laws and Regulations («Opt-in Laws») Around the World

With email marketing, it’s a must to understand and follow the legislation and other requirements of the country or countries where your email recipients are located. Email regulations vary among regions and countries, and significant fines are imposed for breaching these laws. For instance, in the European Union (EU), you need to comply with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which requires senders to have recipients’ explicit permission for both email marketing and email tracking.

Opt-In and Privacy Laws in North America and Europe »

Must-Haves for Email Marketing Platforms

When you choose permission marketing technology solutions for your global communications, be sure that they include these essential features at a minimum:

  • Scheduling: The ability to schedule an email marketing campaign for automatic delivery, with a specific date and time, in any time zone.
  • Compliance: Support for complying fully with laws and regulations, such as the EU GDPR. Keep in mind that you are required to obtain and store the explicit consent from each recipient, granting you permission to send email marketing messages to this individual. Stored explicit consent also applies for email tracking if you track on the personal level.
  • Language: UTF-8-character support is recommended if you communicate in non-English languages and rely on non-English characters.

L-Soft’s Email Marketing Technology

Exploring solutions for your global email marketing? LISTSERV® Maestro is built on best practices and compliance with the stricter regulations in Europe. L-Soft’s email marketing solution offers you four different email tracking levels, providing additional support for compliance with the EU GDPR.

LISTSERV Maestro is available as software or a cloud service, from L-Soft.

  • Explore features and benefits of the ListPlex Maestro email marketing cloud service (ESP)
  • Explore features and benefits of the LISTSERV Maestro on-premises email marketing software

We’re happy to help you find the best solution for your global communications and marketing.

L-Soft Sales
sales@lsoft. com


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Hours of Service (HOS) | FMCSA

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U.S. Department of TransportationU.S. Department of Transportation IconUnited States Department of TransportationUnited States Department of Transportation


“Hours of service” refers to the maximum amount of time drivers are permitted to be on duty including driving time, and specifies number and length of rest periods, to help ensure that drivers stay awake and alert. In general, all carriers and drivers operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) must comply with HOS regulations found in 49 CFR 395.

View a Summary of the HOS Regulations for property- and passenger-carrying drivers.

On June 1, 2020, FMCSA revised four provisions of the hours of service regulations to provide greater flexibility for drivers without adversely affecting safety. Motor carriers are required to comply with the new HOS regulations starting on September 29, 2020.

What has changed?

Short-haul Exception

Expands the short-haul exception to 150 air-miles and allows a 14-hour work shift to take place as part of the exception.

Adverse Driving Conditions Exception

Expands the driving window during adverse driving conditions by up to an additional 2 hours.

30-Minute Break Requirement

Requires break of at least 30 consecutive minutes after 8 cumulative hours of driving time (instead of on-duty time) and allows an on-duty/not driving period to qualify as the required break.

Sleeper Berth Provision

Modifies the sleeper berth exception to allow a driver to meet the 10-hour minimum off-duty requirement by spending at least 7 hours of that period in the berth combined with a minimum off-duty period of at least 2 hours spent inside or outside the berth, provided the two periods total at least 10 hours. When used together as specified, neither qualify period counts against the 14-hour driving window.

Educational Tool for Hours of Service (ETHOS)

FMCSA launched a new online tool that allows users to enter driver records of duty status to see if there are potential violations with the new hours of service regulations.

Learn More About The HOS Final Rule

  • HOS Overview Slides

  • HOS Final Rule in the Federal Register

  • HOS Final Rule Fact Sheets | (Español)

  • HOS Frequently Asked Questions

  • HOS Visor Card | (Español) 

  • HOS Question & Answer Session Recording (July 2020)

    • Presentation Slides

  • HOS Question & Answer Session Recording (September 2020)

    • Presentation Slides

  • HOS Question & Answer Session Recording (December 2020)

    • Presentation Slides

  • Get to Know the New Rule (Español)

  • HOS Fact Sheet (Español)


If you still have questions after reviewing the materials provided above, please email hoursofservice@dot. gov.

Who Must Comply?

Most commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers must comply. In general, a CMV is a vehicle that is used as part of a business and is involved in interstate commerce and fits any of these descriptions:

  • Weighs 10,001 pounds or more
  • Has a gross vehicle weight rating or gross combination weight rating of 10,001 pounds or more
  • Is designed or used to transport 16 or more passengers (including the driver) not for compensation
  • Is designed or used to transport 9 or more passengers (including the driver) for compensation
  • Is transporting hazardous materials in a quantity requiring placards

Last updated: Wednesday, November 10, 2021

Additional 24 hours per day. Games with time / Sudo Null IT News

The dream of many of my friends and acquaintances is that they have more time. To what, the second question. Someone needs time for a family, someone for their favorite work, someone for rest. But time is the resource that we all lack. I managed to compress time and get in a day, first an extra ten minutes, then an hour, then a few more hours. For ten years, time has been compressed so that there are about 48 hours in my day. In a week I manage to do as much as many people do in two, three, or even a month. Without prejudice to personal life, the quality of work, not with the help of sleepless nights and constant hands-on work. In a short note I will try to outline the main provisions of the system that I adhere to, how it helps me, what strengths and weaknesses it has. To state all the tricks and tricks, you will need more than one material, consider this note as an introductory one. If you like it and say you want to read the sequel, it will appear.

At the time of writing, I realized that the text is huge, so for now I give the first piece. Otherwise, it will be hard to read.

Time is not only a physical quantity, but also a psychological one

Each of us has a watch and we are used to the fact that time surrounds us in everyday life. We get up at a certain time on an alarm clock, the TV schedule is tied to specific hours, even shops are open at certain hours. And since childhood, most of us begin to consider time as an immutable quantity. However, time is also a psychological parameter. The same events can take different periods of time in our minds, but in real life they will take exactly a minute. Time in each of us flows at a different speed and depends on our psychological perception. We adjust our perception of time to external reference points (hour grid), but with varying degrees of success.

For some, this statement is obvious and banal, someone is ready to start arguing with it. I will try to give a few examples that will show that time is not constant in our minds. Ordinary examples that are not measurable are obvious. Joyful events fly by like an instant, just yesterday you went on vacation, and today you are already packing your bags on the way back. I liked the book, got into the taste, and the pages ran out. For unnerving, sad events, the course of time is different, we want to run away from them, but like flies in a web we get stuck in the measured flow of time, the day does not want to end, nothing pleases us. But these are examples that will not convince hard-nosed materialists, despite their obviousness.

A couple of years ago, I had an idea how to check the relativity of each person’s internal clock. In a small hotel on the seashore, there was a path from the main building through the forest and the park to the sea. From the steps of the hotel to the entrance to a large park, the walk took about 15 minutes, and then different paths went to the beach. On the way there were no places that would attract attention, forced to stop. The perfect place for my experiment. I asked a few campers to help me with the next one. Everyone had their own favorite way to the beach. My task was to measure how long this path takes for each person (I gave a phone with a GPS receiver, the person himself did not measure anything). In the evening, everyone talked about how long it took him to get to the beach on his own way. For 3 days, these measurements continued. The subjective time for five people was equal or conditionally equal to the objective time. The road took from 15 to 25 minutes, people estimated their time spent adequately.
In the next three days, I asked to use any path to the sea, except for my favorite and become familiar. This is where miracles began to happen. On the first day, everyone estimated that the travel time to the beach had increased (25 percent on average). On the second day, it was 20 percent higher, and on the third day, it became almost equal to the path along the favorite track. The indications of the GPS programs stated the opposite, the way to the beach did not increase in time, the speed of movement of each participant in the experiment remained the same. And for the first and third time, all participants in the experiment walked along the new paths in the same way, but their perception of time was very different.

What is the reason? It turns out that when going along a new path, we often cannot, without looking at the clock, objectively assess the time spent, or do not attach ourselves to the well-known hour grid, for example, the fact that you walked right after the news broadcast, but reached back to the cartoons (this so for most people). Why does such a simple task cause such different scores.

My explanation, which is received intuitively, has no scientific justification and does not pretend to be. While following a new road, we subconsciously explore the things around us. It operates in addition to us, our consciousness. It remembers the trees, objects around, the unevenness of the soil (yeah, here is a snag, next time you need to take it to the right). A person is not capable of getting rid of this unconditioned reflex. If something scares you half to death, then you will rush forward without looking at the road, and it is unlikely that you will return, remember that you were running here (the fright must be very strong, 99 percent of people never experience this in their entire lives. )

My experiment continued, I asked people to walk along the same paths. And then it turned out that during the rain, their path either increases or decreases. Subjective time spent on the road. Real time did not change almost in any way, the difference was in seconds. The speed of movement was the same (thanks to GPS). The perception of time was influenced by external factors, in our case, rain. Unfortunately, I failed to continue that experiment, but the results obtained are curious and are confirmed by my observations of my performance. Pleasant tasks are solved faster than unpleasant ones. Playing, you spend hours unnoticed, rather than cleaning the house, when each room takes hours, but in fact tens of minutes. To confirm my suspicions that time is subjectively perceived differently, I conducted other experiments, both with my friends and strangers. But let me omit their description so as not to deviate from our main topic.

Below, we are talking about how to make your psychological, inner time expand within one day. Fighting the laws of physics is useless, but most of us are quite capable of deceiving our own body and consciousness. And make sure that there are 48 hours in our day. Or 30. Or 25. Everyone can choose their own size and their own comfortable rhythm of life.

Physiology and some important conventions

Whether you’re a lark or an owl doesn’t matter to the advice I’ve given. The main thing is that you maintain healthy sleep, your mood, fatigue and many other equally important parameters of the body depend on it. Lack of sleep for the sake of work is a force majeure that must be avoided by any means available. In the modern world, this is not always possible, but it is worth striving for. If you have chronic sleep deprivation, then put aside reading this note, and start by getting a good night’s sleep and with a clear head, continue reading.
Any disease is not the norm for the body, therefore, it can affect your mood, desire to work, ability to do something. Even in the way you think. Therefore, your efficiency on such days should be lower than usual. Many people forget this banal, common truth.

To finish the topic of physiology, let me share a little secret. To activate your body, make it work at maximum speed, it is enough to skip your lunch and dinner. Your activity, both physical and mental, will increase. But the fee will be a slight breakdown after the first meal. This trick is useful on certain, important days when you need to be in maximum shape. But besides him, there are no secrets that any person could not apply to organize their working day more efficiently. Let’s get started.
To-do list — archaic
You are a modern person, I am sure of it. You have a phone, and it has more than one to-do list that you can enter, set alerts, synchronize with your work program. Some take advantage of these opportunities, some don’t. But, in my opinion, the to-do list is an extremely effective thing, but not in electronic form. I will try to substantiate this idea, but I will come from afar.

Have you ever held in your hands such an archaic object as a fountain pen? How long have you been writing on paper? If you are not a student or a teacher, then I bet that you write a little. A signature here and there, a couple of sentences and that’s it. However, throughout the first part of life, we are only taught what to write. In our head, a relationship is formed between what we write and what we remember. Someone has such a relationship developed better, someone worse. But it exists even if you haven’t used a pen for ten years after school.

Comparing how we remember the text entered on the computer and what is written by hand, the second method will win. With one caveat, you write what interests you, what concerns you. If you compare a set of phrases without any sense, then there is no difference in the way you do it. This is the first argument in favor of writing down your to-do list for today, not on your phone or computer, but on a piece of paper that lies on your desktop.

Another argument is that you should always see the to-do list, even if it lies on the edge of your main papers, but involuntarily you will glance at it. This is an additional plus. On a phone or computer, you need to display the to-do list on the screen, or it appears on its own when an event occurs. It’s kind of a closed book. Your leaf is an open book with accessible information.

They did the job, they immediately crossed it out, it was on their list. Clear and simple. Does it work? Yes, if you train yourself to make such a to-do list correctly. What I put into the word correctly, I will tell further.
The biggest mistake is to try to put all your cases on such a list. This is a utopia and never worked. You always need to prioritize things, as well as what you are really capable of doing during the day. There is no need to set up Napoleonic plans, this is a disastrous path. If you have a large project (let’s call it, for example, the construction of a castle), then you do not need to specify it without decoding. You are not able to complete such a project instantly, so write what you are actually going to do. For example, draw a picture of the walls for my castle. Or choose parquet for the castle. Divide big things into small parts. This will help you create your schedule.

You can’t go into very petty things. Be reasonable. You will not add to your to-do list, cleaning your shoes before going out, as well as the fact that you need to feed the fish in the aquarium. These are derivative cases, ordinary and everyday things. Cut them off, they should not occupy your consciousness, they should occur automatically (all routine things should not fall into your list).

Never state how long it will take you to do something. Unfortunately, this is a sign of electronic organizers. The case can take 30 minutes or be all day long. Neither is true. You are free to start and finish as you please. Don’t put artificial limits on yourself. After all, if you do not have time to enter your business in one hour, then you will be upset. This will cause your productivity to drop and you may not be able to complete other tasks as quickly as you would like.

It is not necessary to indicate the order of things in the list, this is a regular list. You can start with the first case, but then go to the last one on the list and jump in the middle. Everything depends on your desire, it is not the list that guides your actions, but you choose what you are interested in doing now.
When making a list, evaluate your strengths sensibly. There is no need to deceive yourself. If you understand that a trip to your grandmother is necessary, but you extremely do not want to spend time on it, then do not add it to the list. Do this, fine. But if suddenly not, then it will remain a silent reproach. Our task is to make it pleasant for you to enter a to-do list and this has become a common practice. And there is only one way to achieve this. When you add to the list those things that you actually do during the day, and most of the items on the list will be crossed out. This will prove the effectiveness of the to-do list.

To be continued…

Phew. Sorry, but here I need to interrupt my story, which hung in the air. In continuation, I will talk about the conveyor at the factory and parallel (there are no calculations, but deeds), this is a method that allows you to achieve tasks quickly and efficiently. Also, a few words about motivation, about self-deception, which is so pleasant, and ways to evaluate your productivity and quality of work. Will not do without the protection of office workers and their ability to be independent. Thanks for reading the text.

Images in hours, minutes and seconds format — Win32 apps




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This section describes the string format types used to create a format pattern for a time string. Each format picture consists of one line of each format type.


In format types, the letters «m», «s», and «t» must be lowercase, and the letter «h» must be lowercase to indicate 12-hour hours, or uppercase («H») to indicate 24- hour clock.

Single quotes can be used to mark characters that must be displayed exactly as specified. If an application needs to display a single quote, it must put two single quotes in the string. For example, ‘abc»bar’ is rendered as «abc’bar».

The following table defines the types of formats used to represent hours.

Line Meaning
h Clock without leading zeros for single digit hours (12-hour clock).
hh Clock with leading zeros for single-digit clock (12-hour clock).
H Clock without leading zeros for single digit hours (24 hour clock).
HH Clock with leading zeros for single digit hours (24 hour clock).

The following table defines the format types used to represent minutes.

Line Meaning
m Minutes without leading zeros for single-digit minutes.
MM Minutes with leading zeros for single-digit minutes.

The following table defines the types of formats used to represent seconds.

Line Meaning
s Seconds without leading zeros for single digit seconds.
ss Seconds with leading zeros for single digit seconds.

The following table defines the format types used to represent a timestamp.

Line Meaning
t Single character time marker string.
Note: This format is not recommended for certain languages ​​such as Japanese (Japan).

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