Au and aw phonics rules: Spelling the sound /or/: or, ore, au, aw

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Dear to My Heart: Explicit Phonics au, aw

Explicit Phonics Lesson

Au/aw — /ô/ 
as in Paw

Day 1

Phonemic Awareness:

          We have
studied digraphs. What is a digraph? (2 consonants  that come together to make a unexpected sound.)
Name the digraphs we have studied. ( sh, ch, th,

          Can you give
me some diphthongs that we have studied this year? (ou/ow as in how,
oi/oy as in boy, long oo as in zoo, short oo as in book.) Briefly review the
diphthongs using the picture sound/spelling cards.

          The sound we
are studying today is /ô/ as in paw. It
can be spelled two ways: au and aw. As in the ow spelling, the w becomes a
vowel when it follows the letter a. What are the spellings for /ô/? (au
and aw)

PA (oral)

          I am going to
say some words. I want you to tell me if the /ô/ sound is in the word or not. For
example, if the word is saw, you would give me the
thumbs up signal because the word has the same sound as in the word paw. If the word is sat, you would give me the thumbs down signal because it
does not have the /au/ sound.

          Pronounce these words to have the
students indicate if the word has the /au/ sound:

law               shawl           loud             gnaw            not              haunt

bawl             fault            draw            drew            haul             crawl

Spelling Generalizations:
Use au at the beginning or in the middle of a word for the “ô” sound.
Use aw at the end of a word for the “ô” sound.
If a single l, n, or k follows the “ô” sound at the end of the word, use aw.


          The sound /ô/ is
usually spelled with au when
it is in the beginning or middle of the word and aw when the sound is at the end of a word. (Refer to the
paw sound card.) Use two colors of markers to write /au/ words one spelling at
a time on the board as the class sounds out and then blends the words as a

          * Be sure to draw attention to the gh being silent in some of the words. It might be
useful to call them the “ghost letters” in the
words. They are there, but you don’t know it from listening to the word.

                   law               dawn            lawn             thaw

                   shawl           drawn          straw           awful

                   taunt           pause           taught         because

                   fault            caught         haunted       daughter

          After the words are decoded, briefly
discuss meanings of words that may be unfamiliar to the students. Reread the
lines of words with the class. Then give clues and have the students tell their
buddy which word is the answer. Call on one set of buddies to give and spell
the answer. Circle the words on the board as they are given as answers. Clues
could be:

Used to drink with…straw

Synonym for rule…law

Stop for a little while…pause

He ____ the ball…caught

First light in the morning…dawn

Antonym for great…awful

Grass in front of a house…lawn

Large sloth wrapped around the shoulders for warmth…shawl

The frozen meat had to _____…thaw

10. what a spooky house might be

11.  Synonym for tease…taunt

12. A daddy’s girl…daughter

13. Teach in the past…taught

14. Might begin the answer to a why

15. A word used to blame someone for
something bad…fault

The last word (drawn) is read by a student and used in a sentence.
This exercise will give practice in reading words with the /au/ sound and will
help expand vocabulary at the same time.

Reading Decodable Text:

Have student Buddies practice reading
the phrases (You will need at least one copy for each pair of students.)



Day 2


the au /aw sound using the Paw Sound Spelling card introduced yesterday.

Phonemic Awareness:

I am going to say a word that has the /au/ sound. I want you to tell
me if the /au/ sound is at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of the
word.  For example, if the word is law,
you would give me the signal for the sound /au/ being at the end of the word. (Each student could use cards with B, M, and
E. Another procedure could be to use thumbs up for beginning, thumbs down for
ending, and right hand between the thumb and fingers of the left hand for

          Pronounce these words to have the
students indicate where in the word the /au/ sound is heard:

dawn            jaw              awful           straw           crawl           gnaw

August         fault            haunt           fawn            flaw             awning        


          Write the following words on the board
as the students sound and blend into words (see Day 1. Use buddy strategy for
more student engagement. )

          crawl           raw              bawl             gnaw

          launch          vault            faucet         fraud

          flaw             awning         yawn             claw

          laundry         August         crawfish      pauper


Use these clues or
make up your own (be sure to push the vocabulary factor):

Synonym for chew…gnaw

Move on your hands and knees…crawl

Things that need washing…laundry

To breathe in with a wide open mouth…yawn

A bad spot in something; not perfect…flaw

Synonym for uncooked…raw

Eighth month of the year…August

Synonym for spigot; water comes from it…faucet

To cry loudly…bawl

10. Fingernail is to human as _____
is to cat…claw

11.  Very poor person…pauper

12. Another name for the safe in a
bank …vault

13. To push a boat off into the water
(or a rocket into space)…launch

14. A crustacean;(an animal) …around

15.  Someone is cheated…fraud

a student read the last word (awning) and use it
in a sentence.

Reading Decodable Text:

          Have student Buddies practice rereading
the phrases.


Day 3


          Use Sound Spelling cards to review /ô/
as in  au
and aw. Have words with these spellings on flashcards (about 8) to quickly
practice decoding.


          Using a pocket chart and letter cards
or magnetic letter tiles work through the word chain:

raw              vault            because                

draw            fault            cause                    

drawn          flaunt          clause                   

dawn            haunt           pause                   

lawn             haunch         sauce                    

law               launch

claw             staunch








          Use the dictation procedure.

          1.       ou      oi       au      ew      aw

          2.       claw       
crawl          straw      

          3.       pause     
cause      because

          4.       August         laundry

      We will launch the rocket now
because it is August.

Reading Decodable Text:

students with copies of sentences. Have them locate and circle words
with the au/aw spelling. Then practice reading the sentences with buddy

Day 4


          Review quickly the definition of a
diphthong, and the sounds of au and aw. Have the students give words that have
these target sounds. List them on the board with the students’ help in spelling

“Chunking” Words:

          Write these words on the board one at
a time. Circle syllables and have the students read that syllable. Once all
syllables are circled, blend the syllables into words. (Always discuss word
meanings as necessary. )

withdrawn             redrawn                 lawyer                   somersault

distraught             overdrawn             default                  assaulted

Reading Decodable Text:

 Reread sentences from Day 3 and phrases
from Day 2  using the buddy strategy.

Day 5


          Review quickly the definition of a
diphthong, and the sounds of au and aw using the sound spelling cards. Using
about eight word cards, have Buddy A read the first word and tell a sentence
using the word to Buddy B. Call on one Buddy A to share their sentence. Then
for the next card, Buddy B reads and tells a sentence using the word to Buddy
A. Continue until all the word cards have been used.


          Use the dictation procedure:

          1.       aw        oy        ow        au       ou

          2.       lawn             dawn            flaw  

          3.       fault            haunt           taunt 

          4.       taught         caught         drawn

          5.       daughter        

          His daughter taught her dog to shake
with his paw (on the lawn).

Reading Decodable Text:

Have the students count how many words
that have the /ô/ sound that they can find in the story «Paul’s New Puppy».
Read the passage to the students, have the class read it chorally, and then
have buddy A read to buddy B. Then B will read to A.


au/aw Phrases

1.   use a straw

2.  eat the
cole slaw

3.  gnaw on
his claws

4.  bawl

5.  taught
the law

6.  a fawn

7.  saw a
long yawn

8.  claw of
a hawk

9.  the last

10. caught the ball

11. a long yawn

12. a lawn at dawn

13. a crawfish crawls

14. all your fault

15. a broken faucet

16. flaw in the shawl

17. gnaw on a straw

18. taught to draw

19. crawl in the straw

20. an August dawn

21. a spotted fawn

22. drawn with chalk

23. a haunted house

24. launch the boat


                 au/aw Sentences

   It’s my fault the faucet broke.

   The lines were drawn for the ballgame.

   Paul taught Paula how to draw a fawn.

   We sat
on the lawn of the haunted house.

   The dog yawned and lay in the straw.

   His paw was raw from crawling on the rocks.

   We saw a fawn on that August dawn.

   They can’t launch the boat in the awful

   Shawn taught me how to put up the awning.

daughter bawled because she lost her   shawl.

lawyer paused to yawn.

the junk to the lawn at dawn.

the faucet on and do your laundry.

caught a nap before he taught the class a new law.

Paul’s New Puppy

Paul got a new puppy. The puppy’s only flaw was that


he liked to gnaw on everything! He would even gnaw on

his own paw until it was raw!
At dawn Paul caught him

gnawing on his shoes. It was Paul’s fault
because he

left the shoes out on the lawn. Paul finally taught him

to gnaw on everything.

Strategies for teaching AU and AW Words + 2 Free Games and Anchor Chart

Reading · Science of Reading · Spelling · Uncategorized

AU and AW words can be tricky to learn for spelling and reading. With practice in looking at phonics patterns, your students will gradually develop a sound understanding of how spelling works with diphthongs and vowel teams! Here are some handy phonics strategies they could apply when working with these letter pairs.

Click to Download Free AU AW Words Anchor Chart More Resources Below

Teaching spelling generalizations with au and aw words can be a challenging process partly because they have the same sound and also because regional dialects have strong influences on certain phonemes.

For example, in some American accents the /ȯ/ sound – found in a word such as “saw”. It is distinct from the short o sound; while in other dialects and accents, the sound is barely distinguishable from the short <o>. Students must be taught to recognize these sounds according to their dialect and accent!

At the point your students are introduced to au and aw words such as <AU> in August and <AW>, as in saw; they’ll have already had some practice with spelling generalizations and spelling rules with vowel teams for example ai/ay, ee, ea/ey, oa/oe, ou/ow and oi/oy. So with these lessons encourage children to be looking for patterns in how these words are spelled.

AU is found at the beginning or in the middle of a syllable never at the end. AW is found at the beginning middle and end of a word.

Some au and aw words that follow this spelling generalization include:

daub                 aunt                haul             fault             August

paw                 law               draw                flaw                 jaw

When doing orthographic mapping or dictation, it is helpful to utilize words carefully, making sure that the “aw” sound is placed at the end of each syllable. To ensure accuracy and fluidity, keep this in mind during your writing process.

PART TWO Spelling Rule for Vowel Teams AU and AW Words

To address the /ȯ/ sound followed by an <n> or <l>, there is a key secret that unlocks successful spelling! Think of these pairings as families. Following part two of this rule will ensure consistent and accurate spellings with <au> and <aw> words. <aw> in the middle it is usually followed by just <L> or<N> Use of this phrase helps students remember this pattern.

Some words that follow this generalization include

bawl                 crawl              shawl              dawn             yawn               lawn

Helpful Spelling generalizations and patterns for aw au words

The only other spellings with <au> and <aw> words that you will find in commonly used words with <aw> in the middle of a word is in that middle spelling the diphthong <aw> is almost always found directly before the letters <l> or<n> in word-final position. Examples would be (shawl, bawl, lawn, pawn and yawn)

The diphthong <au> is also followed by the letters <l> or<n> but usually the <l> or<n> is also followed by an additional consonant. Examples would be (haunt, gaunt, vault, and laundry.) <AU> and <AW> are less commonly found ar the beginning of words.

Helpful Tips And Activities

Questions can Guide Students Spelling Choices

Teach kids to ask helpful questions in this sequence to guide their spelling with au/aw.

  • What’s the base word of the /aw/ word?
  • Where n do they hear the / ȯ/ sound in the au or aw word?
  • what letter or letters comes after the / ȯ/ sound?

Teach Carefully and Systematically with au/aw

Whether you are working one on one or working in small groups systematic teaching is important.

  • At first only spell with the /AW/ sound in the final position- let students sort groups of words to get fluency with the concept of no <u> at the end of a word.
  • Then spell words with the word families <awn> and <awl>
  • Help children recognize the difference with a phonics sorting activity

Phonics Games for teaching AU and AW

Teach these sounds using a word list with our interactive game worksheets! I created them to be one-page, no-prep resources so students can practice with the different ways to spell au and aw words while having fun. For every correct word they get the reward of a dice roll – the winner is whoever reaches between 20-50 points first! Leave a comment below to let me know which games are most helpful!

Use Decodable Texts with au/aw

Utilizing decodable texts in your classroom, you can promote both enhanced fluency for readers and correct spelling for writing. Have students highlight syllables in a variety of colors while reading stories. As students read, write and spell during their fun Science of Reading lesson they will gain skills with literacy.

Orthographic mapping and dictation

Use my free Orthographic Mapping template to help teach tricky sounds and essential sound symbol mapping as words are mapped and spelled. Ask them to practice words that contain the sound /aw/ such as “draw”, “paw” or “claw” before introducing more complex words such as “dawn” and, haunt. After working on words make sure to have students write a phrase or sentences to extend learning.

In Freebie Library

Please leave a comment or feedback below to let me know if any of the tips in this article are helpful. Please let me know If you need any support!

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How to read combinations of English vowels in stressed and unstressed syllables. Simple Rules for Reading English Words

In English, reading two consecutive vowels in a stressed syllable is different from reading each separately. In this case, do not confuse combinations of vowels and two adjacent vowels belonging to different syllables. Such adjacent letters occur at the junction of a prefix and a root, or a root and a suffix or ending. For example: bean [bi: n] — a combination of vowels; react [rı’ækt] — two adjacent vowels.

For ease of remembering letter combinations, you need to know duplicate letters that form combinations that sound the same. Such understudies are letters: «i» = «y»; «u» = «w». They form combinations that sound the same: ai = ay [eı], ei = ey [eı], oi = oy [ɔı], au = aw [ɔ:], eu = ew [ju:], ou = ow (in the middle words) [aʊ].

The letter «y» before a vowel makes a consonant sound [j]. For example: yes [jes] — yes, yard [ja: d] — yard.

For the convenience of memorization, we will divide the combinations into groups:

Group Combination Sound Examples Note
1 oi = oy [ɔı] boy [bɔı] — boy, voice [vɔıs] — voice
ei = ey [eı] eight [eıt] — eight, they [ðeı] — they
Both letters are read by their Latin name
2 au = aw [ɔ:] pause [pɔ: z] pause, saw [sɔ:] — saw
oo [u:] too [tu:] — too, too
oo+k [ʊ] took [tʊk] — took, took
or [aʊ] out [aʊt]
ow [əʊ], [aʊ] at the end of the word: know [nəʊ] — to know, snow [snəʊ] — snow
at the beginning or middle of a word: down [daʊn] — down
Special reading that does not follow from reading each letter individually
3 ai = ai [eı] aim [eım] — goal, day [deı] — day
or [əʊ] road [rəʊd] — road, coat [kəʊt] — coat
oe [əʊ] toe [təʊ] – toe
and [(j)u:] due [dju:]

ui [(j)u:] fruit [fru:t]

ea [i:] sea [si:]

and [i:] see [si:]

or [aı], [i:] lie [laı] — lie, chief [t∫i:f] — leader
ye [aı] rye [raı] – rye
Only the first letter of its alphabetic name is read
4 eu = ew [(j)u:] neutral [‘nju: trəl] – neutral, new [nju:] – new, crew [kru:] – team
Only the second letter is read as in the alphabet
5 air, air [eə] air [eə] — air, their [ðeə] — their
ear, ear [ıə] ear [ıə] — ear, cheer [t∫ıə] — greeting
Arny combinations. The letter «r» turns the second sound of non-ary combinations into an indefinite sound «ə»

1st group of English vowel combinations

The main features of this group:

— combinations «oi», «oy» are read as a diphthong [ɔı]. For example: noise [nɔız] — noise, boy [bɔı] — boy;

— in the unstressed position, the combinations «oi», «oy» are read in the same way as in the stressed position. For example: turmoil [‘tз:mɔıl] — turmoil, envoy [‘envɔı] — messenger;

— combinations «ei», «ey» are read as a diphthong [eı]. For example: eight [eıt] — eight, they [ðeı] — they. Or as a long [i:], for example: receive [rı’si: v] — receive, key [ki:] — the key;

— exceptions: the combination «ei» is read as [aı] in the words either [‘aıðə] — also, neither [‘naıðə] — none, height [haıt] — height, reads like [e] in the word leisure [‘ leʒə] – leisure;

— in an unstressed position, the combinations “ei”, “ey” are read as a weakened sound [ı], that is, with reduction, for example: foreign [‘fɒrın] — foreign, money [‘mʌnı] — money;

— combinations «ei», «oi» occur in the middle of words;

— combinations «ey», «oy» occur at the end of words.

2nd group of English vowel combinations

In this group, the following features can be distinguished: tə] — daughter, law [lɔ:] — law;

— you need to remember that in some cases the combination «au» is read as [a:], for example: aunt [a: nt] — aunt, laugh [la: f] — laughter, or as [ɒ] — because [bı ‘kɒz] – because;

— the combination «oo» is read as a long sound [u:], for example: too [tu:] — also, moon [mu: n] — the moon;

— exceptions: the combination «oo» is read as [ʊ] in the words foot [fʊt] — foot, good [gʊd] — good, soot [sʊt] — soot, stood [stʊd] — stood, wood [wʊd] — wood , wool [wʊl] — wool; reads like [ʌ] in the words blood [blʌd] — blood and flood [flʌd] — flood;

— the combination «oo» + «k» is read as a short sound [ʊ], for example: look [lʊk] — look, book [bʊk] — a book;

— in most cases, the combination «ou» is pronounced as a diphthong [aʊ]. For example: sound [saʊnd] — sound, out [aʊt] — outside;

— you need to remember that in words borrowed from French, the combination «ou» is read as [u:]. For example: you [ju:] — you, bouquet [bu: ‘keı] — a bouquet;

— reading the combination «ou» differs from the general rule and reads like [ʌ] in words: country [‘kʌntrı] — country, enough [ı’nʌf] — enough, rough [rʌf] — rude, trouble [trʌbl] — trouble, young [jʌŋ] — young, and also reads like “əʊ” in the words shoulder [‘∫əʊldə] — shoulder, though [ðəʊ] — although it reads like [ɒ] in the word cough [kɒf] — cough;

— in an unstressed position, the combination «ou» is read as a neutral sound [ə]. For example: nervous [‘nз:vəs] — excited, famous [‘feıməs] — famous;

— the combination «ow» is read as [aʊ] or as [əʊ]. For example: now [naʊ] — now, snow [snəʊ] — snow, bow [bəʊ] — bow;

— it is necessary to remember that in the word knowledge [‘nɒlıdʒ] — knowledge, the combination “ow” is read as [ɒ];

— in the unstressed position, the combination «ow» is read in the same way as in the stressed [əʊ]. For example: window [‘wındəʊ] — window, yellow [‘jeləʊ] — yellow;

— due to the irregularity of reading the combinations «ou» and «ow» they should be checked by dictionary transcription and memorized.

3rd group of English vowel combinations

This is the largest group of vowel combinations. Let’s consider the features of these combinations:

— the combinations «ai» and «ay» are pronounced as a diphthong [eı]. For example: main [meın] — main, day [deı] — day;

— words of exception with combinations «ai» and «ay»: said [sed] — said, says [sez] — says;

— in an unstressed position, the combinations “ai” and “ay” are reduced to a short [ı], for example: mountain [‘maʊntın] — mountain, Sunday [‘sʌndı] — Sunday;

— sometimes the combinations «ai» and «ay» are completely absorbed if they are followed by the letter «n» in an unstressed syllable. For example: certain [‘sз: t (ə) n] — indisputable, Britain [‘ brıt (ə) n] — Great Britain;

— the combinations «oa» and «oe» are read as a diphthong [əʊ]. For example: boat [bəʊt] — boat, toe [təʊ] — toe;

— you need to remember the following exceptions: abroad [ə’brɔ: d] — abroad, does [dʌz] — does;

— in the unstressed position, the combinations “oa” and “oe” are pronounced the same as in the stressed position: cocoa [‘kəʊkəʊ] — cocoa;

— combinations «ue» and «ui» are read as [u:]. For example: fruit [fru: t] — fruit, cruise [kru: z] — cruise, due [dju:] — must, Tuesday [‘tju: zdı] — Tuesday;

— the combination «ee» is read as a long [i:], for example: see [si:] — to see, meet [mi: t] — to meet;

— the combination «ea» can be read either as [i:] or [e]. For example: tea [ti:] — tea, read [ri: d] — read, treat [tri: t] — pleasure, but bread [bred] — bread, threat [Өret] — a threat, etc.

— the combination “ie” has the reading [i:], for example: piece [pi: s] — part, chief [t∫i: f] — leader, believe [bı’li: v] — believe. But in monosyllabic words with an open syllable (when the word ends in a vowel), the combination “ie” is read as in the English alphabet [aı]: tie [taı] — tie, lie [laı] — lie;

— in an unstressed position, the combination «ie» is pronounced with a short sound [ı]. For example: Willie [‘wılı] — Willie, Freddie [‘fredı] — Freddie;

— the combination «ye» is pronounced like [aı]. For example: dye [daı] — paint, rye [raı] — rye.

4th group of English vowel combinations

There are two combinations in this group:

— the combination «eu» is read as [ju:] and occurs in the middle of a word. For example: feud [fju: d] — enmity, neutral [‘nju: tr (ə) l] — neutral;

— the combination «ew» occurs at the end of the word and has different reading options: [ju:] (new [nju:] — new, few [fju:] — few, steward [‘stju: əd] — steward) or [ u:] (chew [t∫u:] — chew, crew [kru:] — team).

5th group of English vowel combinations

— ary combinations are similar to non-ary combinations, but the second element of the diphthong or the length of a single vowel sound is replaced by an indefinite sound [ə]: [eı — eə], [i: — ıə].

In conclusion, it should be said that in all doubtful cases, in order to find out the pronunciation of English words when reading combinations of English vowels, one will often have to refer to the transcription of words in the dictionary.

Rules for reading English for beginners, table


  • 1 Sounds and letters
  • 2 Intonation
  • 3 Stress
  • 4 Types of syllables
  • 5 Reading letters etania

Sounds and letters

English has 44 sounds 20 vowels and 24 consonants .

In the English alphabet — 26 letters : 6 vowels (a, e, i, o, u, y) and 20 consonants (b.c.d.f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, z).

Since the number of sounds exceeds the number of letters, some letters can represent several sounds. To transmit individual sounds, letter combinations are used (transmission of 2 or more letters of one sound). One sound can be transmitted by different letters and letter combinations. Sometimes one letter combination can convey different sounds. Therefore, in the phonetics of the English language, transcription is used — a system of signs, in which each sign conveys only one sound. Transcription shows how to pronounce a word, that is, what sounds it consists of. Traditional English transcription marks are used in bilingual (translation) dictionaries. You can get acquainted with the transcription and pronunciation features of English words in more detail here:

In English, vowel length is very important because it affects the meaning of a word. This means that words with the same vowel of different lengths will differ in meaning, for example: sheep [ʃi: p] — sheep, ship [ʃɪp] — ship, live [lɪv] live — leave [li: v] — leave , leave. Vowel length in transcription is indicated by two dots after the vowel.


Intonation , or melody of speech is a decrease or increase in tone during speech. Each language has its own unique melody, which makes the sound of the language special. There are two main intonation patterns in English: descending (tune one) and ascending (tune two) . The descending and ascending tones of speech are indicated by an arrow: if the arrow stands before the last stressed syllable it is directed downwards, then the intonation of the sentence is descending; if the arrow is directed upwards, then the tone rises:

  • I live in Tokyo.
  • Do you live in Tokyo?

Descending intonation is most often used in affirmative and imperative sentences, special questions (questions that begin with interrogative words), exclamatory sentences, and ascending — in general questions, requests, enumerations.

  • Kate is twenty.
  • Open the window.
  • Where did she go?

Rising intonation examples:

  • Do you speak English?
  • May I ask you a ↑ question?
  • I have a ↑ mother, a ↑ father, a ↑ sister and a ↓ brother.


Each language has its own rhythm. In an English sentence, stressed syllables are mostly pronounced at regular intervals. Stressed in a sentence can be nouns, adjectives, main verbs, numerals, adverbs, interrogative and demonstrative pronouns. The stressed syllable is indicated by the stress sign ( ˈ ). In English transcription, the stress is before the stressed syllable.

Types of syllables

The reading of a vowel depends on the stress and its position relative to other letters. There are 4 types of syllables in English:

    1. Closed syllable — the syllable ends with a consonant: ten, not, spot.
    2. Open syllable — the syllable ends in a vowel: mice, no, cry.
    3. Vowel + r + consonant — card, cart, fork.
    4. Vowel + r + vowel — here, pure, rare.

Reading vowels in four types of syllables


Closed syllable Open syllable Vowel + r + consonant

Vowel + r + vowel


rat [ræt] rate [reɪt] star [stɑː] stare [steə]
or hot [hɔt] hope [həup] sport [spɔːt]

more [mɔː]


bus [bʌs] use [juːz] turn [tɜːn] pure [pjuə]
e ten [ten] Pete [piːt] her [hɜː]

here [hɪə]


still [stɪl] smile [smaɪl] bird [bɜːd] fire [‘faɪə]
and system [‘sɪstəm] type [taɪp] myrtle [‘mɜːtl]

tire [‘taɪə]

Reading letter combinations

Some English consonants affect the reading of adjacent vowels.

Reading vowel combinations

  • a+s+consonant — [a:] — ask, fast, pass;
  • a+l+consonant — stressed in a closed syllable — [ɔ:]- small, salt, tall;
  • a + l + k (l is not readable) — [ɔ:] — talk, chalk;
  • wa, qua+r+consonant (r is unreadable) — [ɔ:] — war, warm, quarter;
  • wa, qua + consonant (except r, l) — [ɔ] — want, quantity;
  • wa, qua — in an open syllable — [ei] — wave, quake;
  • ai, ay — stressed — [ei] — stain, day;
  • au, aw — [ɔ:] — author, law;
  • ea, ee — [i:] — sea, steel;
  • ear — under stress, if this combination does not have a consonant — [iə] — dear;
  • ear — before the consonant -[ə:] — learn, early;
  • eer — stressed — [iə] — engineer;
  • ew — if not after l, r, j — [ju:] — few, dew;
  • ew after l, r, j — [u:] — flew, drew, jewel;
  • i + ld — [ai] — mild;
  • i + nd — [ai] — find;
  • i + gh — [ai] — flight;
  • o + ld — [ou] — old, gold;
  • oo+k — [u] — took, look;
  • oo + consonant — [u:] — mood, shoot, foot;
  • oa — [ou] — road, load;
  • ou, ow — [au] — out, town, loud;
  • u — after r, l, j, and also before the vowel -[u:] — rule, blue, june;
  • ui — [ju:] — suit;
  • ui after r, l, j — [u:] — fruit, sluice, juice.

Reading some consonants and their combinations

  • c+e, i, y — [s] — palce, pencil, icy;
  • c — in other cases — [k] — crystal, cubic, can;
  • g+e, i, y — [dʒ] — page, giant, Egypt ( exception — get, give ) ;
  • g — in other cases — [g] — go, big, gave;
  • j — [dʒ] — jet, just;
  • s — at the end of a word, after a vowel and a voiced consonant, in the middle of a word between vowels — [z] — his, plans, because;
  • s — in other cases — [s] — so, stand, lamps;
  • th — [θ] — think, thin, thank; [ð] — this, that, with;
  • sh — [ʃ] — show, ship;
  • ch, tch — [tʃ] — inch, match;
  • ph — [f] — physics, telephone;
  • w — before r at the beginning of the word is not readable — write, wrong;
  • q — [kw] — quick, equipment;
  • wh+vowel ( except o ) — [w] — what, when, why;
  • wh + o — [h] — who, whom, whose;
  • ture — in unstressed position — [tʃə] — lecture, culture;
  • tion, ssion — in an unstressed position — [ʃn] — motion, session;
  • ci + unstressed vowel — [ʃ] — social, electrition.

By alexxlab

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