Different types of rocks year 3: Rocks, Rock Cycle, and Formation

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Identifying Types of Rocks Activity

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  2. Template and Class Instructions
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Activity Overview

Rocks can be classified as sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic. Each type of rock is a different part of the rock cycle, and is formed in different ways. In this activity, students will create a chart that illustrates the different types of rocks. In addition to providing examples, encourage students to write a description of the rock and how it is formed. As an extended activity, have students examine the differences between intrusive and extrusive rocks.

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Template and Class Instructions

(These instructions are completely customizable. After clicking «Copy Activity», update the instructions on the Edit Tab of the assignment.)

Student Instructions

Create a chart with examples of the different rock types.

  1. Click «Start Assignment».
  2. Label each column with the names of the different rock types.
  3. Use the internet, books, or your own knowledge to find three examples of each rock type.
  4. Write the names of these examples in the description boxes.
  5. Search for images of these examples and include them in the cell.

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Lesson Plan Reference

Grade Level 4-6

Difficulty Level 3 (Developing to Mastery)

Type of Assignment Individual or Group

Common Core Standards

  • [SCI-4-ESS1-1] Identify evidence from patterns in rock formations and fossils in rock layers to support an explanation for changes in a landscape over time.

  • [SCI-4-ESS2-1] Make observations and/or measurements to provide evidence of the effects of weathering or the rate of erosion by water, ice, wind, or vegetation.

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(You can also create your own on Quick Rubric.)

Give three examples for each category with images.

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All the categories are correctly identified.

Most of the categories are correctly identified.

Some of the categories are correctly identified.

There are three correct examples for each category, with images.

There are two correct examples for each category, with images.

There is one correct example for each category, with images.

Work is well written and carefully thought out.

Work shows some evidence of effort.

Work shows little evidence of any effort.

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Rocks and Weathering

Create a Diagram of the Rock Cycle

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Discussion Starter

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Types of Weathering

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Agents of Erosion

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Image Attributions

  • Andesita / Andesite
    • Miguel Vera

    Attribution (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by/2.0/)

  • Chert («flint») 2
    • James St. John

    Attribution (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)

  • columnar basalt
    • Paul and Jill

    Attribution (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)

  • Drill Lines
    • Me in ME

    Attribution (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)

  • Granite
    • Charles de Mille-Isles

    Attribution (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)

  • Jefferson Memorial
    • dbking

    Attribution (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)

  • Marble
    • AC_RT

    Attribution (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)

  • Slates
    • far closer

    Attribution (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by/2.0/)

  • Sphalerite-pyrite (zinc ore) (Faro Deposit, Lower Cambrian; metamorphosed in the Late Cretaceous; Faro Pit, Anvil Mining District, Anvil Range, southern Yukon Province, northwestern Canada) 2
    • James St. John

    Attribution (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)

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Types of Rocks — Kids Love Rocks

Rocks come in many different colors, shapes, and sizes. Because no two rocks are exactly alike, they are a lot of fun to collect. Your rock collection will be truly unique, so start collecting rocks today!

No one else in the world will have a rock collection just like yours. Although, because many rocks have similar properties, we can compare our rocks with those of other collectors if we categorize them into specific types.

The foundation of a great rock collection is to identify your rocks by type.

Geologists classify rocks into three basic groups based on how they were formed in nature.

The types of rocks are:

  • Igneous
  • Sedimentary
  • Metamorphic

To help you identify the types of rocks in your collection, let’s look at the characteristics that make up the three types. First, we will look at igneous rocks.

Igneous Rocks

Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks are formed from melted rock that has cooled and solidified. When rocks are buried deep within the Earth, they melt because of the high pressure and temperature; the molten rock (called magma) can then flow upward or even be erupted from a volcano onto the Earth’s surface. When magma cools slowly, usually at depths of thousands of feet, crystals grow from the molten liquid, and a coarse-grained rock forms. When magma cools rapidly, usually at or near the Earth’s surface, the crystals are extremely small, and a fine-grained rock results. A wide variety of rocks are formed by different cooling rates and different chemical compositions of the original magma. Obsidian (volcanic glass), granite, basalt, and andesite porphyry are four of the many types of igneous rock. (Credit: U.S. Geological Survey)

Igneous Rock Specimen: Serpentine





Sedimentary Rocks

Sedimentary rocks are formed at the surface of the Earth, either in water or on land. They are layered accumulations of sediments-fragments of rocks, minerals, or animal or plant material. Temperatures and pressures are low at the Earth’s surface, and sedimentary rocks show this fact by their appearance and the minerals they contain. Most sedimentary rocks become cemented together by minerals and chemicals or are held together by electrical attraction; some, however, remain loose and unconsolidated. The layers are normally parallel or nearly parallel to the Earth’s surface; if they are at high angles to the surface or are twisted or broken, some kind of Earth movement has occurred since the rock was formed. Sedimentary rocks are forming around us all the time. Sand and gravel on beaches or in river bars look like the sandstone and conglomerate they will become. Compacted and dried mud flats harden into shale. Scuba divers who have seen mud and shells settling on the floors of lagoons find it easy to understand how sedimentary rocks form. (Credit: U.S. Geological Survey)

Sedimentary Rock Specimen:



Metamorphic Rocks

Sometimes sedimentary and igneous rocks are subjected to pressures so intense or heat so high that they are completely changed. They become metamorphic rocks, which form while deeply buried within the Earth’s crust. The process of metamorphism does not melt the rocks, but instead transforms them into denser, more compact rocks. New minerals are created either by rearrangement of mineral components or by reactions with fluids that enter the rocks. Some kinds of metamorphic rocks–granite gneiss and biotite schist are two examples–are strongly banded or foliated. (Foliated means the parallel arrangement of certain mineral grains that gives the rock a striped appearance.) Anyone who wishes to collect rocks should become familiar with the characteristics of these three rock groups. Knowing how a geologist classifies rocks is important if you want to transform a random group of rock specimens into a true collection. (Credit: U.S. Geological Survey)

Metamorphic Rock Specimen:


Gems — MIUZ Jewelry Guide


Types of precious stones

What the Law Says: List of Gems

Historical excursion

Top 10 Gems

What are the criteria for classifying a stone as precious

How to distinguish real gems from laboratory ones

Interesting facts about precious stones

Precious stones such as diamonds, emeralds, rubies and sapphires are considered to be precious, but is the list limited to these four? In this article, you will learn what gems are, what are their characteristics and properties, and why they are so expensive.

Types of precious stones

There are several classifications in Russia, one of the oldest is Bauer-Fersman, adopted at the beginning of the 20th century. But it is inaccurate, so you should not rely on it. A more accurate classification belongs to E. Ya. Kievlenko, it includes many modern stones, including those discovered in the 20th century.

According to Kievlenko, all gems are divided into 3 large classes:

  • gemstones proper: four orders;
  • gemstones: two orders;
  • ornamental stones.

Consider the orders of gemstones proper, the number of which is much more than four, as is commonly believed.

I order

II order

III order

IV order



Demantoid (green garnet)

All other tourmalines


noble jadeite

noble spinel

noble spodumene


Colored sapphires (all colors except blue)

Noble white and fire opal


Blue sapphire

noble black opal







Moon rock


Red tourmaline




Group of pomegranates


This classification does not include, for example, stones that were discovered in the second half of the 20th century. So, tanzanite, if evaluated by its market value, could have the status of a precious stone of the 1st order, and in terms of jewelry properties — of the 2nd order. In general, any division can be called conditional.

In the West, there is no provision for dividing precious stones into orders; they are all called nothing more than gem stones or gems. That is, these are stones that have jewelry properties, they can be cut and used to make jewelry.

Previously, all gems of the III and IV order, and sometimes the second order, were conditionally called semi-precious, but this is not true. The world community does not recognize such a division, since it discredits minerals in the eyes of buyers.

What the law says: list of precious stones

In the Federal Law No. 41 of 03/26/1998, only one order of precious stones is mentioned. According to the definition, gemstones include diamonds, emeralds, rubies, sapphires, alexandrites, natural pearls in raw and processed form. Unique amber formations can also be equated to them.

In all cases, we are talking only about natural samples, and not about materials of artificial origin, even if they have similar properties. The law does not provide any other classifications, which gives jewelry chains reason to use the outdated and incorrect term “semi-drugs”.

Historical excursion

In ancient times, various materials were classified as precious stones depending on their external characteristics and symbolic meaning. So, the list included pearls, amber and coral, which are organic materials.

Many minerals that were considered precious in ancient times are not currently considered as such. The Old Testament mentions 12 precious stones adorning the breastplate of the Jewish high priest: diamond, ruby, emerald, sapphire, carbuncle, topaz, amethyst, agate, yahont (corundum), onyx, chrysolite, jasper (jasper). In ancient times, all red stones were called carbuncles.

Top 10 Gems

It’s not a secret for anyone what gems of the 1st order look like, but not everyone has an idea about the rest of the minerals from the list below.


at all times were the most desirable among precious stones. As you know, this is a mineral with a reference hardness of 10 points. There are colorless and colored (yellow, pink, blue, red, etc.) diamonds. The latter, especially red and blue, are valued more than the rest.


Deep green emeralds
so opulent that it gave rise to the new color term «emerald». The stone is a representative of the beryl group. Colombian emeralds are especially valued. In the Russian Empire, only members of the imperial family had the right to wear these stones. Due to the fragility of the mineral, not every fixer will undertake to work with it. Since most of these stones have many inclusions, flawless samples of dense tone weighing from 5 carats are more expensive than diamonds.


Rubies are called red corundums. Rubies from Myanmar are considered the highest quality, it is there that stones of the color “pigeon blood” are mined. And in 2015, a new ruby ​​deposit was discovered in Greenland.

Sapphire blue

Mineralogists call sapphire
only the blue variety of corundum. The best are cornflower blue sapphires of medium saturation. The most expensive and high-quality stones are mined in Kashmir. The largest blue sapphire is the carved Millennium Sapphire weighing 61,500 carats. Before cutting, the find weighed 90 000 ct.

Colored sapphires

Gemologists single out colored stones separately from blue precious corundums, and here the palette is quite wide: these are yellow, and pink, and orange, and green sapphires. Madagascar remains the main supplier of colored sapphires to the world market.


A carat of tanzanite is valued at between $300 and $2,000. First of all, the price is influenced by the color of the stone, which can be blue-violet, purple, blue, olive and sometimes pink. There are also colorless tanzanites. The crystals are almost 100% transparent. The hallmark of tanzanite is trichroism, that is, the ability of the mineral to change color three times depending on how you look at it: from olive to blue-violet and then to red-raspberry-violet.


Alexandrite, first discovered in Russia, is a variety of chrysoberyl. The mineral was named after Tsarevich Alexander. Later, after becoming emperor, Alexander II wore an alexandrite ring all the time. The main feature of the stone is the color reverse from greenish blue in daylight to crimson red in artificial (alexandrite effect).

Noble black opal

Noble opals, including black, are valued primarily for their ability to opalescent — to play with all the colors of the rainbow. The mineral acquired this ability due to large globules in the structure. At the same time, flashes of color come from the inside, and the overflows are soft and gentle. Opal is very often counterfeited, for fakes and imitations, reflections come from the very surface. The largest noble black opal ever discovered is the Lady of Glengarry weighing 1,520 carats.


Green garnet, the so-called Ural emerald. The unique feature of this Tier III gemstone is its high dispersion, which is superior to that of diamond. Demantoid
often has fibrous inclusions of golden byssolite, and it looks very beautiful. In addition, it is rare, so the value of the demantoid is classified as precious stones.


Pale pink transparent kunzite was Jacqueline Kennedy’s favorite stone. This gem variety of spodumene quickly gained popularity thanks to the support and publicity of Tiffany & Co. Some of the most beautiful specimens come from Brazil. Kunzite has the property of pleochroism — it is able to change color depending on which side to look at the crystal. Good hardness (7 points) allows you to wear any jewelry with this stone without fear.

What are the criteria for classifying a stone as precious

Value is determined by beauty, durability and rarity, with fashion playing an important role. Each criterion includes several characteristics.

Beauty is revealed through the prism of color, brilliance, the play of stone and various optical effects. A rare mineral is recognized if the deposits are rare, if the size and / or purity of the stone positively distinguish it from the representatives of its group. Wear resistance depends on strength, hardness, brittleness, cleavage.

A rare stone of a beautiful color, which has high transparency and the beauty of which does not interfere with enjoyment of inclusions and other defects, can be considered precious. At the same time, it is large enough and has good hardness, which allows it to be used for making jewelry. The presence of optical effects such as asterism, opalescence, pleochroism also affects the cost of the sample.

How to tell real gems from laboratory ones

An ordinary person will not be able to determine by eye that in front of him is a real stone or grown in a laboratory. Thus, it is not possible to distinguish natural emerald from hydrothermal emerald without special equipment.

Jewelry tags in jewelry chains always indicate the origin of the inserts. You can find notes that a grown stone is used or synthetic, hydrothermal in the case of emerald.

At the same time, samples created by human hands often have the same physical and aesthetic properties as the prototype. The only difference is that such stones did not lie in the ground for many years.

Another thing is when stones are ennobled in order to pass them off as precious or improve their properties, or frank fakes and imitations are used. For example, about 95% of mined tanzanite is yellow-brown in color. To obtain the commercial blue-violet color, the crystals are annealed at high temperature.

An independent gemological examination will allow to reliably establish the nature of the mineral, to determine the fact of refining.

Interesting facts about precious stones

1. The popularity of diamonds and the fact that they have become a symbol of love was facilitated by the mining company De Beers.

2. The list of the strangest things made using natural diamonds includes a Gibson electric guitar worth $ 2 million from 18 carat gold and 400 carats of diamonds, a fountain pen made from more than 2 thousand small stones, Damien Hirst’s diamond skull.

3. Stones with high hardness, such as rubies and sapphires, can be scratched. How? Harder stone.

4. Pearls «Galatea» is a special technology of growing pearls, when a precious stone is planted in the shell of a mollusk, which is overgrown with mother-of-pearl. Then a carving is applied to such a pearl, revealing the precious core.

5. Mining of precious stones can only be carried out by organizations that have a license for this. Searching for stones on your own is against the law.

Read more about precious stones





Most Expensive Gems

Other gemstones

Culture of precious stones in different historical epochs — Vladivostok centralized library system

History of jewelry

Transform any outfit, cheer up a woman and make her simply irresistible by adding a touch of sparkle, emphasizing individuality, of course, the best friends of women — diamonds — can do it! As Coco Chanel said, «You don’t get a second chance to make a first impression. »

January 31 — Jeweler’s Day. We bring to your attention a brilliant history of the emergence and improvement of jewelry. Let’s tell you what outlandish products and famous stones glorified jewelry art, what jewelry was worn by fashionistas and fashionistas in different historical eras, and who stamped «diamonds»? We will try to answer these interesting questions.

When the first decorations appeared

During the excavations, it became known that decorations originate from the earliest eras in the development of mankind.

The history of jewelry began with a necklace made of shells found in South Africa, about 75,000 years old BC. It is difficult to say to whom it belonged. It was, rather, not an ornament, but recognition signs or amulets from evil spirits. In those days, the purpose of the accessory was to provide valuable information about the owner, about his position in society (social status). The first people understood that jewelry could stand out from the crowd. The predecessors of the Neanderthals, the Cro-Magnons, who lived in Europe, made their jewelry from stones, bones, fangs and tendons of animals. These were rather primitive bracelets and beads, fasteners for clothes made of bone. Mighty power, according to primitive people, was also possessed by the animals they hunted. Therefore, decorations made from horns or animal teeth were also supposed to bring happiness. The luckiest hunter was considered to be the one who wore a whole bunch of tiger teeth around his neck.

In the Neolithic era (c. VIII — III millennium BC), a person begins the systematic extraction of the stone necessary for life. From jasper, rock crystal, agate, obsidian and flint, tools and tools (knives, axes, picks, scrapers, arrowheads) are made. The stone played another important role — it was the object of religious worship. To protect against bad weather, hunger and disease, people called for help from supernatural forces, and as amulets protecting from evil, they used beautiful stones or crystals of a certain shape and color. Later, people learned to carve idols and figurines of gods from colored stones. The cult role of the stone has survived to this day. In many countries, according to existing traditions, precious stones of certain names are associated with the signs of the Zodiac, many expensive stones are used to decorate church utensils — icons, books, ritual objects.

Gradually primitive man began to develop a sense of beauty. In the Neolithic sites next to stone tools, ornaments made of colored pebbles, crystals of various minerals and shells are found. A.E. Fersman (a famous mineralogist) wrote: “The bright colors of river pebbles, the transparency of rock crystal, the beauty of a gem could not but attract the attention of a person. A new stimulus has appeared for the study of stones, and man begins to undertake distant wanderings in search of them.

It is believed that the Egyptians were the first to wear jewelry. Craftsmen carved amulets, amulets in the form of a heart and eyes, and beads from soft rocks of stone. Then these products began to be made not from ordinary, but from real precious stones. What women looked like in such jewelry, we can see today in the Cairo Museum of Fine Arts. A figurine is kept here, which was found in an ancient Egyptian burial (2700 — 2500 BC). A young woman named Nofret was the wife of the Egyptian prince Rahotep. On her chest is a necklace of multi-colored stones: emeralds, sapphires, rubies. In the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun, many objects decorated with turquoise and lapis lazuli were found. The sacred scarab beetle on the chest pendant of the pharaoh is carved from a semi-precious green stone.

During the excavation of the tomb of the Sumerian king Meskalamdug, who lived in 2500 BC. e., beads and pendants made of lapis lazuli were found, and in the tomb of the Queen of Ancient Sumer Shubad — combs decorated with stone flowers made of lapis lazuli. During excavations of graves in the Southern Mesopotamia (middle of the 3rd millennium BC), bronze sculptures of a female head and a bull’s head with eyes made of colored stones were found. Note that the decorations were heavy. For example, the wife of the Roman emperor Caligula put on so many precious jewelry that their weight was several kilograms. Jewelry made of precious stones and precious metals emphasized the status and origin of the owner. By the way, jewelry was then worn not only by the weak, but also by the stronger sex. The same Caligula decorated his clothes and shoes with gems, wore earrings.

In the Greek jewelry art, cultural symbolism played an important role, therefore, the jewelry of this period personifies mythological, heroic and religious scenes from the life of the ethnic group; miniature sculpture was widespread.

Rome was a thriving center for early developing goldsmithing, with a well-established jewelry trade that was unrivaled before the Renaissance in Europe. Jewelry became very common, even low-ranking people wore it, in Greece and Rome it became a universal tradition to wear jewelry. Gold began to be used in decorating furniture and household items.

Medieval jewelry

With the adoption of Christianity, jewelry was primarily a symbol of the Christian faith. It was during this period that the monasteries supplied jewelry «goods» to the market and were engaged in the selection of jewelry masters. The growing demand for these jewelry led to the appearance of fakes, but with the formation of the first guild, quality control of jewelry came into practice. It was with the formation of the first guild of jewelry craftsmen that the history of the development of jewelry art and precious jewelry received a serious platform that contributed to its new development.

Jewelry from the Renaissance period

During this period, jewelry began to be used and created solely for the purpose of enhancing the personal representation of beauty. So many famous personalities of that time tried their hand at jewelry. Leonardo da Vinci, starting his career, worked with famous jewelers of that time. It is even known that he made jewelry for some famous people who supported his artistic and inventive endeavors. And Botticelli received his early art education in a jeweler’s shop.

All art during the Renaissance reached a new level. Emphasis is placed on the beauty of jewelry stones, which were used to decorate jewelry, paintings and other works of art. They began to pay more attention to the color of precious stones, their brilliance and radiance, less and less adhering to beliefs about their mystical function. For the first time in history, a diamond was used. This led to the search for methods and approaches to its processing.

Times passed, epochs changed, and mankind continued to improve in creating works of jewelry art. Jewelry creations are floral, ornamental forms, there is a growing interest in pictorial effects. Style Baroque dictates the pomposity of jewelry to jewelers (until the middle of the 18th century), until the world was “conquered” by elegant, thin, originally designed jewelry in the Rococo style.

Brooches and aigrettes in the form of bouquets, cascades come into fashion, diamonds become very popular, and therefore, a classic brilliant cut appears.

All this, of course, is wonderful, but only one circumstance upset the jewelers: only wealthy people could use the fruits of their labor. And what was the rest to do? It’s no secret — any woman wants to be irresistible … There was a way out. Glass imitations of precious stones have been known since antiquity. In the 18th century, this was remembered. In Europe, new jewelry appeared, which was called bijouterie. The word is French and literally means «trade in jewelry.» And the word bijou means «treasure». Jewelers set themselves the task of replacing expensive metals and stones with cheap surrogates, but at the same time preserving the brilliance and luxurious look of the product. And experiments began: what kind of cutting should be done in order to turn green bottle glass into an “emerald”, and ordinary white glass into a “diamond”? Italian and Czech glassblowers competed with each other in making glassware. Skillful craftsmen from the island of Murano (Venice) became famous. And today the work of the Venetian glassblowers is famous.

But the Alsatian glassmaker and jeweler Georges Frederic Strass (Strass) won. It is thanks to this surname that the word «rhinestones» went. So they began to call brilliant jewelry, similar to diamonds, sapphires, emeralds. Strass was the first to make lead crystal, and then gave it a brilliant cut.

He passed off the “precious stones” made in this way as real ones. The fakes shone like diamonds — some buyers thought they were buying real jewelry for a small price. Rhinestones immediately became fashionable — they decorated the buckles of shoes, made buttons on camisoles and vests. Strass stamped not only «diamonds», but also «emeralds», «topazes», «amethysts». The cunning master guarded his secret — the technology he invented did not go beyond the walls of his workshop for a long time. And only when experienced jewelers delivered their verdict — a fake! — Strass was called a hoaxer and adventurer, and his “stones” were called rhinestones. Today, all fashionistas wear jewelry — both rich and poor, young and old.

Jewels in Rus’

The culture of precious stones has always existed in Rus’. Remarkable monuments of the Byzantine style are the art of Ancient Rus’. Old Russian craftsmen mastered many jewelry techniques: filigree (or filigree), basma (embossing), and embossing. Of course, the stones were expensive, and only royal and princely families could afford them. Garments of monarchs and princes, chasubles of clergymen and icons were decorated with gems. At first, gems were purchased in Byzantium and the Arab countries, and also came to us from India and Europe.

Jewels of Ancient Rus’ IV-XVII centuries.

Ivan the Terrible adored gems, he was extremely sensitive to precious stones, he believed in their magical and healing properties. By the age of fifty-three, the sovereign was tormented by a long illness, all sorts of means were tried. And the doctors just shrugged. More than once, by order of the autocrat, the retinue carried the sick king to the treasury, in the hope that the magic of the stones would give the sick relief and restore health and life. Ivan the Terrible sorted through his favorite specimens and, as far as his strength allowed him, explained aloud the meaning of each pebble.

Under Peter the Great, the development of the Urals began. In 1720 topaz, aquamarine, marble and jasper are found. The frame of precious metals, without which jewelry cannot be dispensed, was made in those days by the neighbors of the Urals, Tatar masters. The ancestors of the present Tatars-Volga Bulgars actively traded with the Russian principalities. At the same time, there was an exchange of ideas and experience in the processing of jewelry metals and stones. This was reflected, for example, in ancient Russian coins. In Arabic script in the Tatar language, they are engraved with: “Iban akchasy budyr” (“This is Ivan’s money” — meaning the Russian tsar).

It was Peter I who issued a decree on the preservation of things “subject to the state”, recognizing that the most significant of them should be the property not only of the royal family, but of the entire Russian state. Thus, Peter I laid the foundation for the Diamond Fund of Russia, which is now presented in the Moscow Kremlin Museum (in the building of the Armory). The Diamond Fund is a collection of unique nuggets of precious metals, precious stones, jewelry made of precious metals and precious stones of historical and artistic significance. The crowns of imperial persons are of great value. From 1872 until the fall of the empire, all Russian emperors were crowned with the famous Grand Imperial Crown of the Russian Empire.

Catherine the Great invited European specialists to the Urals, she knew a lot about stones and all the jewelry was of the highest quality. In the palace, the empress had court jewelers in the service. These craftsmen made two crowns each: the Great Imperial Crown (for coronation) and the Small Imperial Crown of the Russian Empire (for other ceremonies)

Cavaliers experienced unprecedented luxury, in Russia in our snowy lands such luxury, which sometimes reached the point of absurdity, did not take root. The price included furs; bracelets were popular among women — they were called «sleeves» and «hoops». They were decorated with precious stones and pearls, and gold chains were inserted into them. Also fashionable were necklaces made of small river pearls, garnets — they were called «monisto». Even the clasp of such jewelry was a work of art — it was painted with delicate enamels.

Women wore traditional headdresses in the form of a kokoshnik, korun, beauty (a kind of crown) with pearl embroidery.

In modern times, every woman has bijouterie for «every day» and a cherished box with real jewelry. Recall that in the 19th century, etiquette ordered ladies and young noblewomen to wear shiny jewelry only in the evening — to balls or to the theater. And no fake stones, only real ones!

History shows that interest in precious stones was everywhere and always, and the creation of jewelry is one of the oldest human crafts. Over time, the technique of mining, processing and cutting of stones is being improved, new forms and plots of jewelry appear, but the essence of jewelry art remains unchanged.

By alexxlab

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