Examples of direct speech in writing: 100 Examples of direct and indirect speech

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100 Examples of direct and indirect speech

Direct Speech:- Direct speech is a report of the exact words used by a speaker or writer. Direct speech is usually placed inside quotation marks and accompanied by a reporting verb, signal phrase, or quotative frame.

Indirect Speech:- Transferring the sentence that someone else says is called indirect speech. It is also called reported speech.

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Active Voice and Passive Voice

Direct: What are you doing?
Indirect: He asked me what I was doing.

Direct: Today is nice, said George.
Indirect: George said that day was nice.

Direct: Listen to me!
Indirect: Mother told me to listen to him.

Direct: She said, “I went to the shopping center.”
Indirect: She said that she had gone to the shopping center.

Direct: Why are you going to school?
Indirect: Mary asked Alex why he was going to school.

Direct: I often have a big meat.
Indirect: My son says that he often has a big hamburger.

Direct: He said, “I will wash my teeth”.
Indirect: He said he would wash his teeth.

Direct: He said, “I live in the city center.”
Indirect: He said he lived in the city center.

Direct: The butcher told us, “We are closing at 7 o’clock.”
Indirect: The butcher told us that we were closing at 7 o’clock.

Direct: He asked her, “How often do you work?”
Indirect: He asked her how often she worked.

Direct: I don’t understand you.
Indirect: Teacher said that he didn’t understand me.

Direct: He works in a bank.
Indirect: She said that he worked in a bank.

Direct: He said “I had lived in Paris.”
Indirect: He said that she had lived in Paris.

Direct: Must I do the city?
Indirect: My sister asked if she had to do the city.

Direct: He said, “I can swim.”
Indirect: He said he could swim.

Direct: I’m angry with you.
Indirect: My mother said she was angry with me.

Direct: My father is helping me study.
Indirect: He said his father was helping his study.

Direct: I didn’t go to the party.
Indirect: Alex said that he hadn’t gone to the party.

Direct: Dance with me!
Indirect: Maria told me to dance with her.

Direct: I can help you tomorrow.
Indirect: She said that she could help me tomorrow.

Direct: Michael asked Tom, “Are you married?”
Indirect: Michael asked Tom whether she was married.

Direct: Please wash your hands!
Indirect: My father told me to wash my hands.

Direct: Don’t smoke!
Indirect: The teacher told us not to smoke.

Direct: I write poems.
Indirect: He says that he writes poems.

Direct: She said: “I would buy new house if I were rich”.
Indirect: She said that she would buy new house if she had been rich”.

Direct: May I go out?
Indirect: She wanted to know if she might go out.

Direct: She is American, she said.
Indirect: She said she was American.

Direct: My son, do the exercise.“
Indirect: She told her son to do the exercise.

Direct: I don’t know what to do.
Indirect: Samuel added that he didn’t know what to do.

Direct: I am reading a book, he explained.
Indirect: He explained that he was reading a book.

Direct: My father said, “I am cooking dinner.”
Indirect: My father said he was cooking dinner.

Direct: I said, “He is driving a car”
Indirect: I said that he was driving a car.

Direct: I am a doctor he said.
Indirect: He said he was a doctor.

Direct: My sister said, “I had already eaten.”
Indirect: My sister said she had already eaten.

Direct: I could swim when I was four.
Indirect: He said he could swim when he was four.

Direct: George is said, “I write a letter”.
Indirect: George is said that she wrote a letter.

Direct: I should call my mother.
Indirect: He said he should call her mother.

Direct: I like ice cream.
Indirect: He said that he liked ice cream.

Direct: Michael said, “I may go there.’
Indirect: Michael says that she may go there.

Direct: I’II see you later.
Indirect: He said he would see me later.

Direct: My boyfriend asked, “Do you like horror films?”
Indirect: Do you like horror films? my boyfriend asked.

Direct: I might be late.
Indirect: He said he might be late.

Direct: We can´t go the zoo next week.
Indirect: They said they couldn’t go to the zoo next week.

Direct: I never get up late, my mother said.
Indirect: My mother said that she never got up late.

Direct: He said, “I was teaching earlier.”
Indirect: He said he had been teaching earlier.

Direct: Mary said, “I have been writing this essay.”
Indirect: Mary said that he had been writing that essay.

Direct: I could swim when I was five.
Indirect: My girl friend said (that) she could swim when she was five.

Direct: She said, “I might come early.”
Indirect: She said she might come early.

Direct: Michael was ill.
Indirect: Michael’s father said (that) Michael had been ill.

Direct: I am leaving home now.
Indirect: He said that he left home then.

Direct: Are you living here?
Indirect: He asked me if I was living here.

Direct: I’m going to come.
Indirect: She said that she was going to come.

Direct: We can communicate smoothly.
Indirect: They said that they could communicate smothly.

Direct: My mother isn’t very well.
Indirect: She said that her mother wasn’t very well.

Direct: I need help with my work.
Indirect: George said “I need help with my homework.”

Direct: I was walking along the Street.
Indirect: He said he had been walking along the Street.

Direct: I haven’t seen George recently.
Indirect: She said that she hadn’t seen George recently.

Direct: I would help, but…
Indirect: He said he would help but…

Direct: I’m waiting for Michael, she said.
Indirect: She said (that) she was waiting for Michael”.

Direct: My parents are very well.
Indirect: Alex said that his parents were very well.

Direct: I bought a car.
Indirect: He said he bought a car.

Direct: They said, “They have taken exercise.”
Indirect: They said that they had taken exercise.

Direct: I am living in Paris.
Indirect: He said that he was living in Paris.

Direct: Please don’t be late.
Indirect: He asked their not to be late.

Direct: She said; “The exam is difficult.
Indirect: She said the test was difficult.

Direct: I can speak perfect Spanish.
Indirect: He said he could speak perfect Spanish.

Direct: I haven’t seen Mary.
Indirect: He said he hadn’t seen Mary.

Direct: What is your name? she asked me.
Indirect: She asked me what my name was.

Direct: I was sleeping when Mary called.
Indirect: He said that he had been sleeping when Mary called.

Direct: Please help me!
Indirect: He asked me to help his.

Direct: I’m living in Texas now.
Indirect: Her father said that he was living in London now.

Direct: “I’ve found a new job,” my mother said.
Indirect: My mother said that she had found a new job.

Direct: Go to bed! mother said to the children.
Indirect: Mother told the children to go to bed.

Direct: Mark arrived on Sunday, he said.
Indirect: He said that Mark had arrived on Sunday.

Direct: I will study”, Mary said.
Indirect: I will study”, said Mary.

Direct: The Minister said, “There will be no growth this year.”
Indirect: The Minister said that there will be no growth this year.

Direct: I have been to France, she told me.
Indirect: She told me that she had been to France.

Direct: She says, “I am ill.”
Indirect: She says that she is ill.

Direct: Michael said, “I have finished my lunch.”
Indirect: She said that she had finished his lunch.

Direct: I’m sitting on the chair.
Indirect: Arya said that she was sitting on the chair.

Direct: My brother said, “I met Alex yesterday.’
Indirect: My brother said that he had met Alex yesterday.

Direct: The dentist said, “Your father doesn’t need an operation.”
Indirect: Dentist said that my father doesn’t need an operation.

Direct: He said, “Man is mortal.”
Indirect: He said that man is mortal.

Direct: He said, “I like coffee.”
Indirect: He said (that) he likes coffee.

Direct: Sansa said “I am very busy now”.
Indirect: Sansa said that she was very busy then.

Direct: Everything is going fine.
Indirect: The news says that everything is going fine.

Direct: I had taken Spanish lessons before.
Indirect: He said he had taken Spanish lessons before.

Direct: Come at 11!
Indirect: Alex told me to come at 11.

Direct: He said, “I am a football player.”
Indirect: He said that he was a football player.

Direct: My father was born in 1962.
Indirect: My father told us that he was born in 1962.

Direct: It is too late.
Indirect: I said it was too late.

Direct: Did you do your homework?
Indirect: He asked me if I did (had done) my homework.

Direct: I often enjoy myself.
Indirect: Mary will say that that she often enjoys herself.

Direct: He said, “he is listening to the music”
Indirect: He said that he was listening to the music.

Direct: She said, “I’ve missed my train.”
Indirect: She said that she’d missed her train.

Direct: Please help me carry this!
Indirect: My mother asked me to help her carry that.

Direct: Michael said, “I will buy a new car.”
Indirect: Michael said that she will buy a new car.

Direct: Mercedes is a good car.
Indirect: Tom said Mercedes was a good car.

Direct: I’m sorry for the accident.
Indirect: Georger told Samuel (that) he was sorry for the accident.

Direct: Mark said, “Bill needs a pencil.”
Indirect: Mark said that Bill needed a pencil.

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Examples of Future Perfect Continuous Tense

tense, english, English Grammar, Examples, Sentences

Future perfect continuous tense refers to an ongoing action that will take place prior to a certain time in the future. The structure of this tense is will have + been + main verb + ing.

– I will not have been staying in India by next year.
– He will have been dancing for two hours.

Examples of Future Perfect Continuous Tense

  • I will not have been staying in India by next year.
  • He will have been dancing for two hours.
  • She will have been shopping for the whole day.
  • I will have been waiting here for three hours by six o’clock.
  • I will have been starting my startup since 2025.
  • By 2001 I will have been living in London for sixteen years.
  • She will have been learning to drive a scooter for one hour.
  • When I finish this course, I will have been learning English for twenty years.
  • He will not have been going to the airport before 10 o’clock.
  • Next year I will have been working here for four years.
  • We will have been working on this project since January.
  • He will have been studying this book for three hours.
  • I will have been written articles on different topics before you come.
  • I will not have been laughing at him for the whole day.
  • Rohit will have been reading various kinds of books on this topic.
  • He will have been singing for the rest of the time.
  • They will have been running a business for ten years.
  • They will have been playing football in that field before you reach.
  • We will have been swimming in the resort’s swimming pool for three hours.
  • April will have been gossiping in the coffee shop before she comes here.
  • Sam will have been removing the waste from the backyard tomorrow.
  • We will have been shopping in that market before you come home.
  • We will have been conducting a surprise test today.
  • We will have been watching a movie in the Cineplex before you come.
  • Rosy will not have been studying for her upcoming semester.
  • You will have been shopping in that market before we come.
  • Will he have been enjoying outside for three months?
  • He will have been waiting for you since morning.
  • I will have been singing different kinds of songs before you join us.
  • He will have been reading the newspaper since this morning.
  • I will have been attending the program before I come here.
  • Will I have been going to work in the office?
  • We will have been using our computer for four days.
  • They will have been playing hockey in that field before you reach.
  • He will have been complaining to the plumber about this leakage problem?
  • The poet will have been writing a romantic poem before the program starts.
  • Will she have been eating dinner when I enter the room?
  • The lyricist will have been writing a realistic song for the film.
  • She will have been surprising him on his birthday.
  • They will have been going to the library since Monday.
  • Will you have been going to the concert of the realistic songs before I come?
  • You all will have been sleeping when I will come for the second round.
  • I will not have been attending the program before I finish this job.
  • They will have been studying seriously for 2 hours.
  • Robin will have been joining us at the meeting before you reach.
  • Will they have been displaying a movie tonight?
  • How long will Jo have been working when he retires?
  • Will you have been working when I arrive?
  • She will have been teaching students for seven months.
  • I will have been helping him to do the task before the class starts.
  • Next month I’ll have been studying Chinese for two years.
  • We will have been enjoying the musical drama before the game show starts.
  • He won’t have been studying long enough to qualify.
  • He will have been working in this factory since January.
  • I will have been arranging all the necessary materials before the program starts.
  • On Thursday, I will have known you for a week.
  • The doctor will have been treating patients for three years.
  • He’ll be tired when he gets here. He’ll have been travelling all day.
  • I will have read forty-five books by Christmas.
  • He will have been living in Paris since 20th June.

Related article:

Examples Of Simple Present Tense Sentences

Examples Of Simple Past Tense Sentences

Examples of Simple Future Tense Sentences

Examples of Present continuous Tense Sentences

Examples Of Present Perfect Tense

Examples Of Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Examples of Past Continuous Tense

Examples of Past Perfect Tense Sentences

Examples of Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Examples of Future Continuous Tense

Examples of Future Perfect Tense


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Direct speech: design rules, diagrams and examples

Contents:

If you are thinking about how to write a book, you will definitely need material about the design of direct speech in a literary text. What is direct speech?

Direct speech is any statement included in the text of the work. It can consist of several sentences, one sentence, a phrase, or even one word. This is not only the statement itself, but also the thoughts of the hero. Direct speech can be quite large in volume and represent a full description, narration or reasoning. Or maybe a simple interjection (“Hey!” shouted Tom). Direct speech is always quoted, which is its formal feature.

Direct speech is introduced into the text with the help of author’s words, which make it possible to understand who the statement belongs to. The author’s words are not only the verb «said», but also many other verb forms denoting the process of speaking and thinking:

  • Says
  • Exclaims
  • Is surprised
  • Reflects
  • Thinks
  • Reasons, etc.

The uniqueness of direct speech lies in the fact that it preserves and conveys the stylistic and other features of the statement, that is, it fully reproduces not only the content, but also the manner of speaking. Direct speech introduced into a literary text allows not only to find out what they are saying, but also to hear this speech, since it is given with all interjections, introductory words, pauses, exclamations, dialectisms. The utterance is transmitted directly, without copyright corrections, which is why such speech is called «direct».

The difference between direct speech and indirect speech

Direct speech:
“I want to be a writer,” she said.
Indirect speech:
She said she wanted to be a writer.

Both direct and indirect speech convey the character’s statement. The choice of one form or another depends on the tasks facing the author of the text: direct speech is the speech of the hero without changes, in which it is possible to catch not only the meaning, but also the intonation; indirect speech helps to convey the main idea of ​​the hero, to retell it without recreating the situation of communication. Direct speech creates the effect of presence, puts the statement itself into the mouth of the hero, the author seems to recede into the background here. Indirect speech is a retelling of the hero’s remark, that is, the author talks about what the hero said, but the statement itself remains behind the scenes, outside the text, the reader does not hear it.

In addition, direct and indirect speech differ graphically. Direct speech is entered into the text directly, without changing the content, and is formatted using quotation marks and punctuation marks (colon, dash, comma). The introduction of indirect speech requires verb forms, conjunctions, pronouns (“he said that”, “she says that”).

Design schemes for direct speech

The direct speech formatting schemes presented below show how to correctly place quotation marks, where and what punctuation marks to use,

Direct speech before the words of the author

“Direct speech” – the words of the author.
«Direct speech!» — words of the author.
«Direct speech» — the words of the author.

An example of direct speech before the words of the author from the novel «Tom Sawyer»:

But halfway through she changed her mind: she remembered how Tom had treated her when she was talking about his picnic. The memory filled her with excruciating shame and burned her like a fire. That’s right for Tom, she decided.

Mark Twain «The Adventures of Tom Sawyer»

Direct speech after the author’s words

Author’s words: «Direct speech».
Author’s words: «Direct speech?»
Author’s words: «Direct speech…»
Author’s words: «Direct speech!»

Example of direct speech after the words of the author

Tom scribbled on the slate: «Please take it — I have more.»

Poor Alfred, noticing that she, for some unknown reason, became very bored with him, kept repeating: “That’s another pretty picture! Look!» The girl finally lost her patience and shouted: “Ah, leave me alone! Tired of your pictures! She cried, got up and left.

Mark Twain The Adventures of Tom Sawyer

The words of the author inside direct speech

“Direct speech, — the words of the author. — Direct speech».
«Direct speech, — the words of the author, — direct speech.»
“Direct speech, — the words of the author. Author’s words: — Direct speech.

An example of the author’s words located inside direct speech

Emm’s cheerful chatter became unbearable for him. Tom hinted to her that he had things to do, that he needed to go somewhere, that he was already late, but in vain — the girl chirped like a bird. “Ah,” thought Tom, “fall through the ground! Will I never get rid of you?» Finally, he announced that he needed to leave — and as soon as possible.

Becky wanted to stand up and say it was Alfred Temple’s fault, but she forced herself to sit still. “Because Tom,” Becky thought, “is probably telling me that it was me who tore the picture. So, I won’t say a word! Even if it were to save his life!”

Mark Twain «The Adventures of Tom Sawyer»

Direct speech within the author’s words

Author’s words: «Direct speech» — the words of the author.
Author’s words: «Direct speech?» — words of the author.
Author’s words: «Direct speech!» — words of the author.
The words of the author: «Direct speech …» — the words of the author.

An example of using direct speech within the author’s words.

He said, “Sid! Sid! — and began to lightly shake the sleeping man.

Mark Twain «The Adventures of Tom Sawyer»

Dialogue design

Dialogue is a conversation between two characters that graphically breaks the story. Dialogue in a work of art, unlike direct speech, is drawn up without quotation marks, even if the words of the author follow the hero’s remark. Each new replica in the dialogue is written with a capital letter, on a new line, the line begins with a dash (-). Otherwise, the design coincides with the above-described design schemes for direct speech. That is, the words of the author in the dialogue are drawn up in writing in the same way as in the design of direct speech, only without quotes.

Each statement of the hero in the dialogue is called the hero’s line. Replies can be interrupted by the author’s speech, and not only by the author’s comments in the course of the conversation, but by entire descriptive or narrative fragments. So the dialogue becomes part of the scene or episode.

— What, brother, are they forced to work?
Tom turned sharply towards him:
— Oh, it’s you, Ben! I didn’t even notice.
“Listen, I’m going for a swim… yes, for a swim!” You want it too, don’t you? But of course you can’t, you’ll have to work. Well, of course, more!

Tom looked at him and said:
What do you call work?
— Isn’t that work?
Tom went back to whitewashing the fence and answered casually:
Maybe work, maybe not. All I know is that Tom Sawyer likes her.
— Yes, what are you? Do you want to say that this occupation is pleasant for you?
The brush continued to walk along the fence.
— Pleasant? And what is so unpleasant about it? Do boys get to whitewash fences every day?”

Mark Twain The Adventures of Tom Sawyer

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Direct speech — sentence schemes in Russian, examples and rules of construction in short (grade 6)

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To convey someone else’s speech in Russian, a special syntactic construction is used in writing — a sentence with direct speech. In the 5th grade, students get acquainted with the rules for making such proposals, learn to draw up their schemes and come up with designs that correspond to the schemes. Further, more complex cases are studied (interruption of direct speech by the words of the author, etc.). Working with diagrams, the task of making a sentence according to the diagram develops speech and helps to remember the rules of punctuation.

Sentence scheme with direct speech

The scheme of a sentence containing someone else’s speech is very different from the schemes of simple and complex sentences already familiar to students in grades 5 and 6. They do not display either the basis of the sentence or the secondary members. Only its main parts are noted: the words of the author and direct speech. The words of the author are indicated by the letter A. Direct speech — by the letter P.

A character’s speech may consist of several sentences, but the rules for the design of the scheme imply the designation of the entire statement with only one letter P, not several. After the letter P there is a sign with which direct speech ends, even if it consisted of several sentences ending in different punctuation marks.

Example: “I haven’t seen him for two days. Do you think he’s gone?» Brother was alarmed. The circuit looks like this:

«P?» — A.

How to chart sentences with direct speech

The author’s words are marked with a capital A if they begin a sentence. After it follows a large letter P, denoting direct speech. She is in quotation marks. The diagram displays punctuation marks between the words of the author and direct speech (in this case, a colon) and a sign that ends direct speech.

Let’s look at examples with diagrams of these simple cases.

Sveta cried out: “Look, a snake!” A: «P!»
A strange thought occurred to him: “What if I ended up in another reality?” A: «P?»
Someone whispered: “It becomes so quiet before dawn…” A: “P…”

A period and a comma after direct speech are placed behind quotation marks, while exclamation and question marks, ellipsis are inside them.

If in a sentence direct speech comes before the words of the author, a dash is placed between them. After direct speech, there is a comma if the sentence is declarative, non-exclamatory, in other cases — question or exclamation marks. The words of the author are denoted by a small letter a.

Sentence scheme with direct speech before the words of the author.

Run! Pavel shouted. «P!» − a.
“You will answer for this,” Averin hissed. «P», — a.

Examples with sentence patterns where direct speech is interrupted by the words of the author.

«Let’s have dinner,» said the mother, «it’s already late» . «P, — a, — p».
Hello kids! Katya exclaimed happily. “How glad I am to see you!” «P! — a — P!

Please note that the second segment of direct speech is indicated by a lowercase letter «p» if it is a continuation of a sentence, and an uppercase letter «P» if it is a separate sentence.

By alexxlab

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