Florence nightingale diary entry ks1: Nightingale Nurse diary

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Diary writing – Teaching how to write a diary entry in KS1 and KS2 Collection Resources

By Sue Drury

Last updated 28 September 2020

What image does diary writing conjure up for you? Sensitive Victorians secretly committing their most private thoughts to the ribbon-bound pages of a dusty old notebook? Explorers noting down their experiences for the sake of posterity?

It’s true that diaries have provided us with some of our most valued historical sources – think Samuel Pepys’ Great Fire of London diary writing, or The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank. But that doesn’t mean they are an archaic form of writing.

If you think about it, much of Twitter, Facebook and other social media usage is simply the current incarnation of the theme of recording your own thoughts and experiences.

Sadly, most of those seem to be so mind-numbingly inconsequential that it is doubtful any self-respecting Victorian would have bothered recording them.

Diary writing is a genre that should be taken seriously. Here some ideas for helping you ensure that your class produce something more interesting than a description of their lunch.



Dear Diary – what is your main purpose?

A diary entry is essentially a form of recount. Its function is to give an account of events that have happened. The difference is that it provides scope for adding a personal perspective, emotion, feeling and possibly an explanation or two where required.

As a result, it can create a very powerful and emotionally charged pieced of writing, which is why it often requires a certain maturity of thought and dexterity with language.



Diary extract – Diary writing examples

The convention is that you should never read someone else’s diary. In this case, however, you have permission. As with any other form of writing, each child needs to be exposed to a wealth of good model texts in order to help them learn what will be expected of them.

Diary entry examples, both factual and fictional, are fairly easy to source. Why not see if you can find ones that relate to topics you are covering in other areas of the curriculum?



What to write in a diary

Once your pupils have had a chance to enjoy the examples you have given them, they will want to know how to write a diary entry of their own. Obviously, their age and ability will influence what you can expect from them but, at KS2, features of a diary entry should cover fairly specific territory.

First and foremost, there will be the consistent and appropriate use of the past tense, perhaps with some present tense forms if the context dictates it. However, this will also be a good opportunity for them to play with progressive forms of both tenses and possibly perfect forms.



Key features of diary writing – structure

Apart from the tense, there are a number of other things for pupils to tick off their diary writing checklist. Take, for example, the order. After a brief introduction – maybe only a sentence – to orientate the reader, the text should be organised in chronological order as this is the most sensible way to show how the events unfolded.

This could also be a good exercise in paragraphing, whereby every shift in time, place or subject is denoted by a change in paragraph. Topic sentences will be invaluable in alerting the reader to the nature of that change.

Finally, there should be a closing comment to round off the piece satisfactorily. Even an expressed desire to repeat the experience at some time in the future will do.



Journal writing and being reflective

Being a reflective genre, diary entries are ideal for encouraging pupils to think carefully about their own writing skills. They could focus on their use of conjunctions, adverbials and prepositions to express time, place and cause in a way that helps their writing flow, for instance.

Alternatively, they could challenge themselves to use noun phrases and expanded noun phrases to add greater clarity to their writing. Of course, you might not want to tackle every objective at once but there is clearly scope to address issues with which your class needs extra practice.



Diary writing – using the right word

You could even view this as an opportunity to help each student focus on improving their word choices. As diaries are usually personal, they often involve emotions which are rarely black and white.

You could help them practise conveying the right shade of meaning using our KS2 emotions and feelings ordering worksheets resource. For a more general approach to improving vocabulary, why not use our challenge mat for upskilling and improving sentences?



Diary writing prompts – someone else’s shoes

Remember, there is nothing to say that a pupil’s diary entry needs to be about their own experiences. Just as they can learn a great deal by reading the diaries of significant people from history, they can also embed knowledge of other subjects by writing imagined diaries of key figures relevant to that topic.

If you are interested in killing multiple birds with one stone, why not combine it with a reading exercise based on a text about the notable person in question? Our famous lives comprehension packs cover a variety of figures from Florence Nightingale in KS1 to Martin Luther King in KS2.

Hark! Someone is approaching. And so, dear diary, these musings must draw to a close for now. We trust there has been plenty here to inspire and inform you. But remember, this is just between us. Don’t breathe a word of it to anyone else!

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Florence Nightingale — The National Archives

  • Tasks
  • Background
  • Teachers’ notes
  • External links


On the 4 November 1854, Florence Nightingale arrived in Turkey with a group of 38 nurses from England. Britain was at war with Russia in a conflict called the Crimean War (1854-1856). The army base hospital at Scutari in Constantinople was unclean, poorly supplied with bandages and soap and the patients did not have proper food or medicine.

Florence Nightingale found that wounded and dying men were sleeping in overcrowded, dirty rooms often without blankets. These conditions meant that they often caught other diseases like typhus, cholera and dysentery. Often more men died from these diseases than from their injuries.

When she arrived at the hospital, army doctors there did not want the nurses helping. Florence Nightingale realised that if the doctors were going to let her nurses to work then they had to do a very good job.

Use the sources in this lesson to explore why Florence Nightingale is considered a significant figure and the founder of modern nursing.



Look at Source 1

‘Florence Nightingale assessing a ward at the military hospital in Scutari’. Coloured lithograph, c. 1856, by E. Walker after W. Simpson. © Wellcome Library, London.

This is a picture of one of the wards at Scutari Hospital.

  • Can you find Florence Nightingale in the picture?
  • What is she doing?
  • How are patients being looked after by other people in this picture?
  • Why do you think that the windows are open in this room?
  • Do you think this would this have been a comfortable place to stay? Give your reasons.
  • This is a coloured printed drawing. What are the advantages and disadvantages for using this to find out about the work of Florence Nightingale?
  • What are the differences between this hospital ward and one today?


Look at Source 2

An extract from the ‘Report upon the state of the hospitals of the British Army in the Crimea and Scutari’ 1855, Catalogue ref: WO 33/1

This report describes the work of Florence Nightingale and her nurses in the hospital at Scutari.

  • What jobs did the nurses do at Scutari hospital?
  • What sort of person was needed to do this work?
  • What things have you seen nurses do when you have visited a hospital or the doctor?
  • What do you think are the main differences between nurses in Florence Nightingale’s time and today?
  • Why do you think this report was written?


Look at Source 3

This is a map of Europe to show the location of the hospital and main area of fighting.

  • Can you find Scutari hospital and Britain on the map?
  • How do you think Florence Nightingale and her nurses travelled from Britain to Scutari?
  • How do you think injured soldiers would have reached the hospital at Scutari?
  • Do you think this would have been an easy journey?
  • Why do you think the soldiers’ hospital was so far away from the fighting area shown in green?


Look at Source 4

Extract from a booklet for new nurses going to the Crimea called ‘Rules and Regulations for the Nurses Attached to the Military Hospitals in the East’. This listed the uniform to be provided by the government, other clothes to bring, and the duties of a nurse. Catalogue ref: WO 43/963

  • Why do you think these nurses needed so many different clothes?
  • How easy do you think it would have been to move around and work wearing these clothes?
  • Why do you think that the nurses were not given all their clothes at once?
  • How were they expected store their clothes?
  • Name any FOUR things nurses were expected to supply themselves (not including extra clothing)?
  • What kind of uniforms do nurses wear today?
  • Why are these uniforms more comfortable and easier to wear?


Look at Source 5

Photograph of Florence Nightingale’s original Crimean war carriage, 1905 Catalogue ref: Copy 1/489 (f130)

During the Crimean War, the London Illustrated News published a picture of Florence Nightingale in a curtained horse drawn carriage which she used when inspecting military hospitals in the Crimea. It was said to be nicknamed ‘Florrie’s Lorry’. Models of the carriage were made and bought by her many admirers at home. The original carriage was returned to Britain and given to the Nightingale Training School for Nurses at St Thomas’s Hospital. It now is on display at the home of Florence’s sister, Claydon House.

  • Why do you think Florence inspected the hospitals in the Crimea?
  • Why do you think she continued do this as part of her work?
  • What would it have been like to travel in this carriage?


Look at Source 6a

Front cover of a file about a statue for Florence Nightingale, Catalogue ref: WORK 20/67

This file is from the government Ministry of Works which has information about the planning, building and up keep of royal buildings and parks, public buildings and deals with the protection and care of ancient monuments and statues.

  • Can you spot the code ‘WORK’ on this document?
  • What does the code tell you about what this file might be about?
  • Now read the source. What is it about?
  • In what part of London was the statue of Florence Nightingale situated?
  • What two other statues were to be placed nearby?
  • Can you explain or find out how these three statues were connected?
  • When could this document to be seen by the public for the first time?
  • What was the old name for The National Archives?

Look at Source 6b

Photograph of Waterloo Place, London, viewed from the East showing the Crimean War memorial, and statues of Florence Nightingale and Sidney Herbert of Lea © Wikimedia Commons

  • Can you find the statues of Florence Nightingale; Lord Sidney Herbert? The Crimea Memorial?
  • Who was Sidney Herbert (1810-61)?


Look at Source 7

Photograph of the statue of Mary Seacole, Jamaican born nurse unveiled at St Thomas’s Hospital, 2016 © Wikimedia Commons

When the Crimean War broke out Mary Seacole was determined to help. She was rejected by British authorities and Florence Nightingale in 1854 to nurse and so paid for her own passage to the Crimea. She worked on the battle front giving out medicine and food and set up the “British Hotel” with Thomas Day behind the frontline near Balaklava where they cared for the wounded.

  • Can you describe this memorial?
  • How has the artist shown Mary Seacole? [Clue: her position, her expression]
  • Why do you think it has taken a long time to create a statue in her memory?
  • Find out more about role of Mary Seacole in the Crimea.


Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) was a British nurse, social reformer and statistician. She was the founder of modern nursing. She came from a wealthy background was born in Italy and named after the city of her birth.

As she grew up, she decided that she wanted to help the sick and injured, and wanted to become a nurse. When Florence told her parents they were not happy as in their view, this was not a respectable profession.

Eventually, her father gave his permission for her to go to Germany to train in 1844 in a hospital in Kaiserwerth, Germany. When she returned she became the superintendent of a hospital for gentlewomen in Harley Street, London.

When war broke out in the Crimea in 1854, the government expected it to last several months, it actually lasted 2 years. They were not ready for how many soldiers would be injured, and this was one of the reasons why the hospitals were in such a bad state. A reporter for the Times newspaper sent back several reports about the hospitals, and people in Britain started demanding something was done about them. This was when the Minister for War, Sidney Herbert, stepped in and asked Florence Nightingale to arrange and take charge of nurses to send to the war.

To ensure that the wounded were kept clean and fed well, Florence Nightingale set up laundries to wash linen and clothing and kitchens to cook food. This greatly improved the medical and sanitary arrangements at Scutari reduced the death rate. The work of Florence Nightingale and her nurses set the standards for modern day nursing.

Florence Nightingale has frequently been described as “the lady with the lamp” and this quote relates to an article published about her in The Times newspaper 8th February 1855, which reads:

“She is a ‘ministering angel’ without any exaggeration in these hospitals, and as her slender form glides quietly along each corridor every poor fellow’s face softens with gratitude at the sight of her. When all the medical officers have retired for the night, and silence and darkness have settled down upon these miles of prostrate sick, she may be observed alone, with a little lamp in her hand, making her solitary rounds.”
It took Florence and her nurses 13 days to reach Scutari, they travelled by ship to Boulogne, then overland to Marseilles where they had a break in the journey. From Marseilles, they took the mail steamer “Vectis” to Scutari.

Other women who nursed during the Crimean war are Mary Seacole and Elizabeth (Betsy) Davis. Both had approached Nightingale to work in her hospital at Scutari, but Seacole was turned down, and Davis was one of a party who were sent to Scutari but was not wanted by Nightingale.

Florence returned after the war as a national heroine. She had been shocked by the conditions in the hospital and began to campaign to improve the quality of nursing in military hospitals. In October 1856 she met with Queen Victoria and Prince Albert and in 1857 she gave evidence to a Sanitary Commission. This helped with the setting up of the Army Medical College.

In 1859, Florence published a book called “Notes on Nursing” which is still in print today. She also founded the Nightingale School & Home for Nurses at St Thomas’ Hospital in London in 1860. She had important influence on campaigns to improve healthcare in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Until her death, Nightingale encouraged the development in nursing in Britain and abroad. The main reason we remember her is that she did a lot of work educating people about the importance of keeping hospitals clean and free from infection, and this work is carried on today in modern hospitals.

However, Florence Nightingale should also be remembered for her skills as a statistician and because of this, she became the first female member of the Royal Statistical Society in 1858. She was able explain in diagram form that most of the deaths recorded in army hospitals came from disease, rather than from battle wounds and that disease could be controlled by good nutrition, ventilation, and shelter. Her diagram is now referred to as the “Rose Diagram.” It was a real breakthrough for those working with statistics and of course revealed in a very clear way, the absolute importance of good sanitation for the army and society.

Florence Nightingale became the first woman to be awarded the Order of Merit.

Teachers’ notes

This lesson is intended for use in Key Stage 1 & 2 as part of an enquiry into Florence Nightingale. It is suggested that the more complex text sources are read by pupils and their teacher/helper together. You could also ask pupils to underline key words/phrases in the transcripts to help make sense of these sources. A simplified transcript is also supplied for Source 2 to be used as necessary. Pupils can work in pairs on the visual sources.

Aims of this lesson

  • To introduce pupils to the idea of using original sources to find out about the past
  • To consider what different sources we can use to find out about the past
  • What sort of questions should be asked of sources?
  • To introduce the concept of significance. Why do we remember certain figures?
  • Understand that significance is attributed to individuals at the time and on the way we live our lives today
  • Are statues important for commemoration?

What other original sources on Florence Nightingale can pupils explore?

An excellent source for more original documents to discuss with your pupils relating to Florence Nightingale are two National Archives blogs listed in the external links. Here you will find her birth certificate and ‘passport’ for the Crimea, an original photograph of Florence Nightingale at Scutari, more documents about her work and the last ever photograph of Florence Nightingale in old age, and another statue of Florence Nightingale in Derby, where she spent much of her childhood.

  • Can pupils discover if their textbooks/topic books support what they have learnt from the original sources used in this lesson?
  • Do these texts tell them anything new or different about Florence Nightingale?
  • Take your investigation wider and compare the role of Florence Nightingale to Mary Seacole, her contemporary.

Connections to curriculum

National Curriculum Key stage 1
The lives of significant individuals in the past who have contributed to national and international achievements

Extension activities

Mary Seacole

Pupils with support from their teacher, create a timeline for the life of Mary Seacole.

  • Compare some history textbooks from 1970s to those of today and see how they now tell the story of nursing in the Crimean War.
  • Discuss why was Mary Seacole’s role in the Crimean War has been overlooked in earlier history books
  • Why was a memorial built for Mary Seacole in 2016 at St. Thomas’s Hospital?

Edith Cavell

Compare the life and work of Florence Nightingale to someone from a different time, Edith Cavell, famous nurse during the First World War.

Florence Nightingale role play [Working in a groups of 3]

It is late September 1854. Florence Nightingale and Sidney Herbert, the Secretary of War are interviewing a woman who wants to go to the Crimea as a nurse.

  • What questions do you want to ask?
  • Use Source 2 to help you write your questions to decide what would make a good nurse. Write 6-8 questions.
  • Now get into a group of three. One person should play the part of the woman who wants to go to the Crimea as a nurse. The other two play Florence and Sidney and ask the questions you have decided on. At the end you must decide, the person gets the job as a nurse in the Crimea.


Illustration – COPY 1/11
Source 1 – ‘One of the wards of the hospital at Scutari’, an illustration published 21 April 1856 by Paul & Dominic Colnaghi & Co – Wellcome Library, London
Source 2 – Extract from the ‘Report upon the state of the hospitals of the British Army in the Crimea and Scutari’ Catalogue ref: WO 33/1
Source 3 – © Maps in Minutes, 1999
Source 4 – Extract from Rules and Regulations for the Nurses Attached to the Military Hospitals in the East. Catalogue ref: WO 43/963
Source 5 – Photograph of Florence Nightingale’s original Crimean war carriage, 1905 Catalogue ref: Copy 1/489 (f130)
Source 6a – Front cover of a file about a statue for Florence Nightingale, Catalogue ref: WORK 20/67
Source 6b – Photograph of Waterloo Place, London, viewed from the East showing the Crimean War memorial, and Statues of Florence Nightingale and Sidney Herbert of Lea © Wikimedia Commons
Source 7 – Photograph of the statue of Mary Seacole, Jamaican born nurse unveiled at St Thomas’s Hospital, 2016 © Wikimedia Commons



External links

More on Florence Nightingale and video to explain her famous “Rose Diagram” .

An audio story of the life of Florence Nightingale

More resources from the Florence Nightingale museum

Two National Archives blogs showcasing yet more original sources on the life of Florence Nightingale:
https://blog. nationalarchives.gov.uk/life-of-florence-nightingale-part-one/

Lady in the Archives: The life of Florence Nightingale (part two)

More on the life and achievements of Mary Seacole

Back to top

Florence Nightingale — BBC Teach

Florence Nightingale tells the story of her life and work, and shows how she grew up to become a nurse during the Crimean War.

The story is told in the first person, and brought to life with a mix of drama, movement, music and animation.

We see Florence as a child and follow her determination to become a nurse.

She trains other nurses to go to the Crimean war.

They make the hospital clean, and care for wounded soldiers.

Florence describes how she worked at night with her lamp.

Florence tells us how this changed nursing forever.

This clip is from the series True Stories.

Please note: This film includes a dramatised scene of conditions in hospital prior to Florence Nightingale’s arrival, which may be upsetting for younger pupils. Teacher review is recommended before use in class.

Teacher Notes

Questions to consider whilst watching the film

Depending on the focus of your lesson, you may wish to ask the following questions after the video, or pause the short film at certain points to check for understanding.

  • 1jqxptw3xli.3.$blocks-article-row-3.1:$zjg6y9q-3=10.1.1.$3.$0.0″>Why it was such a shock to her family what Florence Nightingale wanted to do?
  • How did Nightingale want to change the way nurses were trained?
  • Which event gave her the opportunity to be a nurse?
  • What were conditions like when Nightingale arrived at Scutari, and what changes took place?
  • 1:$zjg6y9q-3=10.1.1.$3.$4.0″>How may she have been regarded differently by the nurses, and by the soldiers?
  • What happened when she returned to England?
  • Why is Florence Nightingale remembered today?
  • Does she deserve to be famous?
  • What lessons can we learn from the life of Florence Nightingale?

1jqxptw3xli.3.$blocks-article-row-3.1:$zjg6y9q-3=10.1.1.$4″>Learning activities to explore after the video

History is a subject which can lend itself to a wide range of cross-curricular links. As a teacher, you will have a greater awareness of how this topic may act as stimulus for learning in other subjects. However, the suggestions below relate solely to ways of developing the children’s historical knowledge and understanding.

1:$zjg6y9q-3=10.1.1.$6.0.0″>Key Question: Why is Florence Nightingale historically significant?

Concept of historical significance
One of the least explored and understood concepts in history is significance. It is sometimes used as a synonym for importance or consequence, but in the history classroom the key is to evaluate why the person, or event, is still remembered in the present day.

As the Historical Association states, pupils should be “encouraged to evaluate the relevance of the contribution of different individuals or how an event came to affect future generations… It is vital that children identify what makes a person or event significant rather than just narrating an individual’s life or reconstructing the event. It is also important to make the distinction between fame and significance. The focus is on effect rather than celebrity.”

Florence Nightingale provides a rich learning opportunity to explore this concept as her name is still used today when discussing nursing. For example, one way in which the country tried to deal with the Covid pandemic was to set up ‘Nightingale Hospitals’.

There are a wide range of resources available for study. In 2020, the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) funded a major project on Florence Nightingale, and one strand of this was educational. The project collated 131 online sources which can be used to study Florence Nightingale, and the learning resource guide for the KS2 classroom directs the teacher to the relevant sources for each lesson. The activities suggested are inter-disciplinary, covering Art, Computing, English, Geography, Mathematics, PSHE and Science. One of the history suggestions, ‘What was the impact of Florence Nightingale’s work?’, links directly to the concept of significance.

Once the pupils have a good background knowledge of Florence Nightingale from the video and have studied the range of sources, they should be able to make a valid judgement as to her historical significance. It is useful to have some criteria for assessing the significance of an individual. History educators have made many suggestions of what these could be, but the ones applicable for study in a primary classroom would be:

  • 1:$zjg6y9q-3=10.1.1.$12.$0″>Relevance: why the achievements of the person are still relevant today.
  • Remembered: why the name of the person is still known today.
  • Durability: the effects of the life of the person have lasted well beyond the time they were alive.
  • Quantity: how many lives have been affected by this person.

Rather than tackling all of these criteria at the same time, as a teacher you may wish to choose one or two as a focus for discussion.

Curriculum Notes

1jqxptw3xli.3.$blocks-article-row-4.1:$zntwqfr-4=10.1.1.$1.0.0″>Learning aims or objectives


From the History national curriculum
Pupils should:

  • 1.1.$4.$0″>understand historical concepts such as …significance.
  • understand the methods of historical enquiry, including how evidence is used rigorously to make historical claims.

Northern Ireland

From the statutory requirements for Key Stage 2: The World Around Us
1jqxptw3xli.3.$blocks-article-row-4.1:$zntwqfr-4=10.1.1.$6.$1″/>Pupils should be enabled to explore:

  • Change over time in places.

To provide a balance of experiences in History pupils could study:

  • Reasons for and effects of historical events.

1jqxptw3xli.3.$blocks-article-row-4.1:$zntwqfr-4=10.1.1.$10″>Teaching should provide opportunities for children as they move through Key Stages 1 and 2 to progress:

  • from sequencing events and objects on a time line in chronological order to developing a sense of change over time and how the past has affected the present.


1:$zntwqfr-4=10.1.1.$13″>From the Experiences and Outcomes for planning learning, teaching and assessment of
Second Level Social Studies:

  • I can use primary and secondary sources selectively to research events in the past.
  • $1.0″>I can investigate a Scottish historical theme to discover how past events or the actions of individuals or groups have shaped Scottish society.
  • I can discuss why people and events from a particular time in the past were important, placing them within a historical sequence.


From the new Humanities Area of Learning and Experience
1jqxptw3xli.3.$blocks-article-row-4.1:$zntwqfr-4=10.1.1.$16.$1″/>School curriculum design for History should:

  • develop rich content across the time periods, through which learners can develop an understanding of chronology through exploring … historical significance.

Principles of progression
1jqxptw3xli.3.$blocks-article-row-4.1:$zntwqfr-4=10.1.1.$18.$2″>Descriptions of learning for Progression Step 2

Enquiry, exploration and investigation inspire curiosity about the world, its past, present and future:

  • I can collect and record information and data from given sources. I can then sort and group my findings using different criteria.

Events and human experiences are complex, and are perceived, interpreted and represented in different ways:


  • I can recognise and explain that my opinions and the opinions of others have value.

More from True Stories:

Diary Writing Topic Guide for Teachers

A diary is a form of recount, where a writer records events, along with their thoughts and feelings about them. They can be personal documents, or they can be shared with others, perhaps even published.

Diaries are important historical documents because they can give us an insight into what life was like in different times and places. Fiction books can also be written in the form of a diary.

Teach your children about diary writing using our handy topic guide!

Choose a section:
Teaching Ideas | Resources | Facts | Videos | Books | Links

  • Use our diary templates with younger children to create a weekly diary for a prince or princess.
  • Try some of our ideas for using The Diary of a Killer Cat with your children.
  • Write a diary entry for a historical figure, or a character in a book. What would they put in their diary?
  • Ask children to keep their own diary for a few days. What kinds of things will they write in them? Do they want their diary to be private or are they happy to share what they have written?
  • This Wordwall sorting activity makes a good discussion starter. Which are features of a diary, and which aren’t?
  • Write a diary entry in the style of a book, perhaps a cartoon like Diary of a Wimpy Kid, or a scrapbook like My Secret War Diary.


  • Our Recount Writing pack includes resources for diary writing and other forms of recount.
  • This BBC page is a great overview of diary writing.
  • Show your children What A Good One Looks Like with the examples on Literacy WAGOLL.
  • These extracts from Anne Frank’s diary are a good introduction for children studying World War II.

  • The oldest known diary is the diary of Merer, which was discovered in a cave in the Egyptian desert. In it, Merer, an official, recorded his activities as he travelled through Egypt, about 4,500 years ago.
  • Samuel Pepys’ diary is an important source of information about the Great Fire of London. Pepys recorded that he buried a Parmesan cheese to keep it safe from the fire!
  • Charles Darwin kept a journal during his voyage on the HMS Beagle, which was invaluable to him in gathering evidence for his theory of evolution.
  • Captain Scott’s journals of his expedition to the South Pole were found with his body, and published the year after his death.

Features of a diary entry

Using The Owl who was Afraid of the Dark as a stimulus, this video lesson recaps the features of a diary entry, including informal language and idiom.

Running time: 14:58

Diary of a Victorian Workhouse Boy

Find out about the life of Charlie Gubbins, a 9-year-old boy sent to the Victorian Workhouse, through his diary.

Running time: 11:48

An Interview with Samuel Pepys

Diarist Samuel Pepys answers questions about the Great Fire of London.

Running time: 2:07

The diary | Anne Frank House

Learn more about Anne’s diary in this short video.

Running time: 2:34

The diary of Flossie Albright, who is just nine when World War II begins.

When Tuffy brings in a dead bird, he can’t understand why his owner Ellie makes such a fuss.

Younger children will love this simple diary, about Wombat’s life.

Part of a series of historical “lost diaries”, this book gives you the facts about Ancient Egypt from the perspective of a mummy!

Older children will be fascinated by Anne Frank’s diary.

  • Read Jeff Kinney’s Diary of a Wimpy Kid online, and download free resources from Puffin to go with it!
  • Samuel Pepys’ diary is available online, and a great resource if you are looking at the Great Fire of London.
  • Oak National Academy has a diary writing unit based on The Windrush.
  • This BBC Bitesize page has a diary lesson based on The Enormous Turnip.

Are you teaching your children about other topics? Explore our full collection of guides!

View more Guides

Mrs Lambert & Mrs McGrath’s Class


In our ICT unit digital imagery we have been developing our photography skills and enhanced our photos by editing them.   Finally we have used our photos to create a photo collage. We hope you like them. 

Enrichment Week : World War One

Year 2/3 have been learning about WW1. They have used photographic primary sources to learn about Walter Tull, a significant individual in British history who was the first black British officer. The children have also talked about the experiences of soldiers in the trenches and the importance of women’s roles on the Home Front.

Please take a closer look at our eye-catching silhouette WW1 art. 

In MUSIC the children have been learning to play the glockenspiel, to read notes and rests.

We have enjoyed learning about plant parts and their functions. 

Materials: In this topic the children have been testing the properties of a range of materials for different purposes.   They even helped out the staff when they ran out of teabags by designing and making new ones.

​Can you spot your spelling shed avatar ?

These children are the ones logging into spelling shed regularly.

Well done all of you !

Famous Nurses

We have been learning about significant individuals from the past.  This has included three famous nurses, namely Florence Nightingale, Mary Seacole and Edith Cavell. We have found out about their lives and how they improved nursing.

​Our Landscape Photos

Thank you to everyone who has taken the time to take a landscape photograph of a view. 
​ We are really pleased with everyone’s effort.
​Our ICT topic on digital photography has certainly inspired you all.






Evie’s digital photograph of a tree that flowers in winter. What a lovely thing to photograph Evie.

Clara’s photograph of her cat because she loves her.

Niall’s photo of Layla and Chip the guinea pig because he thought Chip looked cute.

Harry Jay’s photograph of his baby sister’s cards.

Our Work on Florence Nightingale 

How Did Florence Nightingale Improve Nursing?

Harry Jay





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Why is Florence Nightingale famous?

Florence Nightingale is a famous British nurse who lived from 1820-1910. She helped to make hospitals more sanitary places and wrote books about how to be a good nurse.

Much of what we know about clean, organised hospital conditions today is thanks to Florence’s hard work and research. She began her nursing career during the Crimean War and campaigned for better hospital conditions for the wounded soldiers there.

She is considered the founder of modern nursing.

Top 10 facts

  1. She was born in Florence, Italy, which is how she got her name!
  2. At first her family didn’t want her to become a nurse because they didn’t think it was a very nice job to have but Florence was very determined and eventually got their consent.
  3. Florence helped to treat wounded soldiers during the Crimean War, and made sure the hospital was clean. The soldiers were very grateful for Florence’s kindness.
  4. During the Crimean War, she was nicknamed ‘The Lady with the Lamp’ because she would work all night to make sure the soldiers had what they needed, like water and warm blankets.
  5. In 1883 Florence met Queen Victoria, who awarded her the Royal Red Cross medal to thank her for all of her hard work as a military nurse.
  6. In 1860, she set up the Nightingale Training School at St. Thomas’ Hospital in London.
  7. Florence was a talented mathematician who proved, using statistics, that keeping hospitals clean has a very beneficial effect on patients’ recovery rates. She was the first woman to be elected to the Royal Statistical Society.
  8. International Nurses Day is celebrated every year on 12 May, Florence Nightingale’s birthday.
  9. Thanks to Florence’s work and achievements, people’s view of nursing was transformed and it became a respectable profession for women.
  10. The International Red Cross (which was founded thanks to her work) awards the Florence Nightingale Medal to nurses who have given exceptional care to people who are sick and wounded, in war or peace.
  • 12 May 1820

    Born in Florence, Italy

  • 7 February 1837

    Dreamt that God told her she had a great mission in life, which led her to think about becoming a nurse

  • 1844

    Announced her decision to train for nursing

  • 1851

    Studied nursing at the Institute of Protestant Deaconesses in Kaiserwerth, Germany

  • 22 August 1853

    Became superintendent at the Institute for the Care of Sick Gentlewomen, in London

  • 1853-1856

    The Crimean War: Russia v. UK, France, Sardinia and the Ottomon Empire about owning territories in the Ottomon Empire

  • 21 October 1854

    Left for the main British camp in the Crimea, along with 38 volunteer nurses trained by Florence

  • 4 November 1854

    Arrived at the Selimiye Barracks in Scutari in Turkey

  • May 1855

    Became very ill with Crimean fever, a chronic disease

  • 16 March 1856

    Became general superintendent of the Female Nursing Establishment of the Military Hospitals of the Army

  • August 1956

    Returned to England from Crimea

  • September 1856

    Visited Queen Victoria and Prince Albert to tell them about the poor conditions of military hospitals and asked that a Royal Commission investigate the health of the British Army

  • 1858

    Published Notes on Matters affecting the Health, Efficiency and Hospital Administration of the British Army

  • 1858-59

    Worked to establish a Royal Commission to investigate health conditions in India

  • 1859

    Published Suggestions for Thought to Searchers after Religious Truths

  • 1859

    Published Notes on Nursing: What it is and What it is Not

  • 1859

    Became a member of the Royal Statistical Society

  • 9 July 1860

    Opened the Nightingale Training School at St. Thomas’ Hospital

  • 1861

    Opened the School of Midwifery Nursing at King’s College Hospital

  • 1868

    Opening of The East London Nursing Society

  • 1874

    Opening of the Workhouse Nursing Association and National Society for Providing Trained Nurses for the Poor

  • 1883

    Awarded the Royal Red Cross by Queen Victoria

  • 1890

    Opening of the Queen’s Jubilee Nursing Institute

  • 1901

    Became completely blind

  • 1904

    Appointed a Lady of Grace of the Order of St John

  • 1907

    Awarded the Order of Merit

  • 1908

    Given the Honorary Freedom of the City of London

  • 1910

    Awarded the Badge of Honour by the Norwegian Red Cross Society

  • 13 August 1910

    Died in London, UK

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Did you know?

  • Florence was named for the city where she was born – Florence, Italy
  • She had just one sibling – an older sister named Frances Parenthope
  • Florence Nightingale’s very first patient was a dog! She nursed Cap the sheepdog back to health after his leg was badly bruised, much to the thanks and appreciation of his owner, Roger.
  • Before Florence left for Turkey, she had a baby pet owl called Athena who she’d carry in her pocket.
  • The soldiers Florence nursed at the hospital in Scutari had a pet tortoise named Jimmy.
  • Florence didn’t like having her picture taken or painted, so there aren’t many photos or paintings of her around today.
  • The nursing school Florence set up is now called the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery, and it is part of King’s College London.
  • Florence is credited with inventing the pie chart!
  • Florence published books, reports and leaflets about hospital planning and organisation. Her most famous work was Notes on Nursing: What It Is and What It Is Not.
  • American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote a poem about Florence called Santa Filomena.
  • Florence mentored Linda Richards, who is the first professionally trained nurse in the United States of America.
  • 12 May, Florence’s birthday, isn’t only International Nurses Day; it is also International Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Awareness Day as some people think she may have had the disease herself.

Florence Nightingale gallery:

  • Florence Nightingale
  • Portrait of Florence as a young adult
  • Portrait of young Florence
  • Florence Nightingale around 1858
  • Picture of Florence later in life
  • Florence as an elderly woman (Credit: Wellcome Collection CC BY 4.0)
  • Florence’s childhood home, Embley Park in Hampshire



Florence grew up in Hampshire, and was educated by her father who taught her things most girls wouldn’t have learned at that time such as Latin, maths, philosophy and history.

Florence went against her family’s wishes when she announced her plans to become a nurse – they didn’t think it was a proper job for someone as wealthy and well-educated as Florence. It took Florence seven years of asking for her father’s permission to study nursing before he finally gave it to her. Florence studied nursing at the Institute of Protestant Deaconesses in Kaiserwerth, Germany.

Florence worked as a nurse in a hospital in Scutari, Turkey during the Crimean War, where she discovered that soldiers were dying because of lack of proper food and medicine, shortage of staff and dirty conditions. She got her famous nickname, ‘The Lady with the Lamp’, after a news article in The Times described her care and attention to the wounded soldiers in Scutari – she kept working even after everyone else had gone to sleep.

Florence told the British government how poor conditions were for soldiers in hospital, and they had famous engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel design a hospital that could be taken apart and shipped overseas.

Florence wrote more than 200 books, reports and pamphlets about how hospitals should be arranged and run, including Notes on Nursing: What it is and What it is Not, a book explaining basic nursing skills such as hygiene, nutrition and how to set up a sickroom; it was used to teach nurses at Florence’s nursing school.

Florence suffered from illnesses that often kept her in bed for nearly half of her life, and she became permanently blind in 1901.

Florence was very good at maths, and was the first woman to become a member of the Royal Statistical Society. She was also the first woman to be given the Order of Merit.

The Florence Nightingale Medal was established by the International Red Cross in 1912 – two years after Florence’s death – and seen as the highest honour a nurse or nursing aide can achieve.

Florence’s work reached far beyond the shores of England. She helped to improve medical care in India by working to establish a public health service.

Famous friends

Sidney Herbert (1810-1861), a British politician who sent Florence to work in Scutari, helped her lead the effort to improve army health, and helped her set up the Nightingale Fund to train other nurses.

Linda Richards (1841-1930), the first professionally trained nurse in America, who was mentored by Florence when visiting London for a seven-month training course; she founded nursing training schools across America, and helped launch Japan’s first training programme for nurses.

Elizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910), the first woman to qualify as a doctor in America, who encouraged Florence to keep trying to convince her family that she should study nursing.

Related Videos

Just for fun…

  • See a picture of Scutari hospital, read a newspaper report about it and imagine being there with Florence Nightingale activities from the National Archives
  • Print out a story about Florence Nightingale and an activity sheet about it, from the British Council
  • Hear Florence Nightingale sing her story in a Horrible Histories song
  • Florence Nightingale crosswords and wordsearches
  • Take the CBBC Formidable Florence Nightingale Quiz

Children’s books about Florence Nightingale


Find out more about Florence Nightingale:

  • Watch a BBC Bitesize video in which an actress playing the part of Florence Nightingale tells the story of her life and work
  • A KS1 BBC Bitesize animation about Florence Nightingale
  • A National Geographic Kids guide to the Lady with the Lamp
  • A detailed biography of Florence Nightingale from the Florence Nightingale Museum
  • See a September 1860 letter which Florence Nightingale wrote describing the benefits of clean air
  • Florence Nightingale timeline
  • Read all about The Crimean War
  • Florence Nightingale facts and pictures from Kiddle Encyclopedia
  • See illustrations of Florence’s work during the Crimean War
  • Information about Wales’ most famous nurse, Betsi Cadwaladr, a contemporary of Florence Nightingale who also worked during the Crimean War
  • Find out about the interactions between Florence Nightingale and Queen Victoria

See for yourself

  • Lots of pictures of Florence Nightingale are in the National Portrait Gallery
  • The Florence Nightingale Museum collection is made up of almost 3000 artefacts including Athena, Florence’s pet owl. Look at the objects yourself online
  • See objects related to Florence Nightingale which are exhibited at the National Army Museum, including her medals
  • Florence buried in the graveyard at St. Margaret Church in East Wellow, Hampshire.
  • There is a statue of Florence Nightingale in Waterloo Place in London, and three statues of her in Derby
  • Florence is pictured in a stained glass window in the Derbyshire Royal Infirmary Chapel
  • The Florence Nightingale Museum is located in St Thomas’ Hospital in London, where you can even see the lantern that gave her the famous nickname!
  • Visit the National Army Museum in London and follow a Florence Nightingale and Mary Seacole gallery trail to find out about soldiers’ lives during the Crimean War

Also see

Biography of Florence Nightingale, who saved hundreds of soldiers

May 12 is International Nurses Day. On this day in 1820, Florence Nightingale was born, the sister of mercy, thanks to whom the organization «Red Cross» was born. We tell how a British aristocrat went against the family, trained as a nurse and made nursing a respected profession.

A Girl with a Destiny

“It is difficult to express how much I am grateful to my father for awakening my interest in statistics and political issues,” Florence wrote to her older sister Parthenope.

Florence was born to British aristocrats William and Frances Nightingale during their honeymoon trip to Italy. The girl received her name in honor of the city in which she was born — Florence.

William Nightingale was a wealthy landowner. He noticed the abilities of his youngest daughter early. Especially signs of fundamental statistical thinking, which appeared in Florence as a child. The girl liked mathematics, she was drawn to collect and organize new information. William did everything to give his daughter a good education. He independently taught her history, philosophy and literature. As well as foreign languages, among which, among others, was Latin. Discussions with her father about politics attracted Florence much more than housekeeping.

The girl really wanted to do something meaningful. She thought about where poverty and unemployment come from. I thought about how representatives of the privileged class, to which I myself belonged, could solve these problems.

Because of her parental status, Florence led an active social life, traveled extensively and made acquaintances with influential people. But at the same time, she felt unhappy and thought about how she could change the world on her own. The girl found the answer in religion. At the age of 16, Florence read the book «The Cornerstone», which outlined the principles of Christianity. From that moment on, she decided that her destiny was to reduce human suffering. Florence wanted to be a nurse.

This decision did not please Florence’s parents. At that time in England, it was believed that the profession of a nurse was suitable only for girls from the working class, but definitely not for the daughter of status parents. Besides, Florence’s family had other plans. Like all ladies of high birth, their daughter had to get married.

A woman unable to be only a wife

In 1847, the English poet and close friend of Florence Richard Milnes proposed to her. He courted Florence for many years, and she really loved him. But the girl believed that Milnes was not the person next to whom you could spend your whole life. And she was also convinced that she could not be just a wife. Therefore, she refused the admirer, although later she wrote in her diaries that this refusal was not easy for her.

Florence has traveled the world extensively and studied how nursing is organized in different countries. And 1850 was a turning point for Florence. Contrary to her parents, returning from a trip to Africa, she stopped in Germany. There she visited the Lutheran religious community in Kaiserswerth. The girl spent two weeks in it, studying nursing. Although she later denied in her diaries that she was «trained», as «the nursing was nil and the hygiene was terrible».

But she was struck by the devotion with which the local employees approached the matter. Florence saw how women from humble families devote their lives to the sick and destitute. It inspired her. Nightingale realized that nursing needed to be more active. At the same time, she did not want the nurses to continue to do menial work under the supervision of privileged ladies. Florence dreamed that any woman could gain knowledge in the field of medicine, regardless of her status and origin.

Florence Nightingale fulfills her dream

A few years later, British politician Sidney Herbert invited Florence to become the manager of a hospital for governesses. The position was unpaid, but Florence accepted. And she even managed to convince her father to pay her an allowance of £500 every year.

Florence’s efficiency and organization impressed everyone who worked with her. She advocated that Roman Catholics and Jews be treated in hospitals, selflessly fought against the cholera epidemic. Through her influence, Dr. Henry Bence Jones considered opening a nursing school at St. George’s Hospital. Florence was supposed to teach them, of course.

But the Crimean War began.

The British military acted on the side of the Ottoman Empire and suffered serious losses. The Times newspaper wrote that British soldiers are not receiving competent effective treatment. There were not enough basic necessities to provide medical assistance.

Sidney Herbert wrote to Florence Nightingale asking her to go to the front. Interestingly, by this point, she herself had already made the same proposal. To help her, Florence gathered a group of 38 women. Only 14 of them were nurses, and the rest were nuns and simply caring women. Together they went to the field hospitals of the Ottoman Empire.

Nurse, manager and angel of mercy

“At night, when all the medical workers have left, and darkness and silence descend on the long rows of sick bodies, you can see her, with a small lamp in her hands, making her lonely round,” described the work Florence in the barracks hospital journalist Edward Cook. He was one of her patients. Florence Nightingale will forever go down in history as the Lady with the Lamp.

When Florence and her delegation arrived on the territory of the Ottoman Empire, local doctors and officials greeted them coolly. The thing is that Nightingale immediately began to establish her own rules.

Florence took full control of the first hospital entrusted to her. She bought the necessary equipment and opened a laundry. The work of the institution was nearly jeopardized when 125 Turkish workers went on strike demanding more money. But Nightingale quickly figured it out, fired them and hired the Greeks.

The woman also completely reorganized and improved the work of the male nurses. And she also agreed that they and the patients should be better fed. Florence also did not forget about the psychological state of the soldiers. She arranged educational and recreational activities for them, together with other workers and women workers, helped write letters to relatives.

Florence helped and coordinated the work, first in Selimiye hospitals, and then in the Crimea. She not only took on the duties of a nurse, but also showed managerial abilities. All this time she kept records, where she recorded the causes of diseases and the difficulties she encountered.

Florence Nightingale is a national heroine

The Lady with the Lamp was returning to her homeland as a national heroine. But the Crimean War was given to Florence hard and exhausted her. She wished that such suffering would never happen again. Nightingale believed that for this it was necessary to reform the British military medical department.

In England, a woman was able to arrange a meeting with Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. She showed them the notes she had made and shared her ideas for reform. As a result, thanks to the efforts of Florence, the necessary equipment, ventilation systems, and sewerage appeared in hospitals. And most importantly, a military medical school was opened.

Florence then established the School of Nursing at St Thomas’ Hospital in London. As a result, nursing has become a respected profession. Many young women from the upper echelons of society were able to choose a path for themselves other than marriage.

The School model was successful, and similar educational institutions began to open in other European countries. Florence’s ideas inspired the public figure Henri Dunant to create the Red Cross humanitarian organization.

Florence developed a special chart for estimating mortality in the army. In it, every month, she noted the reasons why soldiers died. Now this development is called the Cockscombe diagram. It is still used to work with statistical data.

Nightingale’s nursing concepts formed the basis of nursing. And her book «How to Care for the Sick» has been reprinted many times in different countries of the world.

In 1904, Florence became the first lady of mercy of the Order of Saint John. And in 1908 — the second woman in history to receive the Freedom of London award. In 1912, a medal named after her was established to reward outstanding nurses and orderlies.

Florence died on 13 August 1910 in her sleep. At her request, the woman was buried in the church cemetery next to her father and mother. 9Florence Nightingale — frwiki.wiki

Florence Nightingale should not be confused with David.

Florence Nightingale , born in Florence died in London is a British nurse who pioneered modern nursing and the use of statistics in public health.


  • 1 Biography

    • 1.1 Family origin
    • 1.2 Youth (1820-1844)
    • 1.3 The decisive years (1844-1854)

      • 1.3.1 Meeting with Samuel Gridley Howe
      • 1.3.2 Getting Started as a Nurse
      • 1.3.3 Travel period (1847-1850)
      • 1.3.4 Kaiserswerth (1850-1851)
      • 1.3.5 Early Nursing Career (1852-1854)
    • 1.4 Crimean War and Scutari Hospital
    • 1.5 Homecoming: Army Health Commission
    • 1.6 Later career
    • 1.7 Special moments
  • 2 The work of Florence Nightingale

    • 2.1 Contribution to statistics
    • 2.2 Contributions to literature and the feminist movement

      • 2.2.1 B ideas Suggestions
      • 2.2.2 Cassandra
  • 3 Offspring

    • 3.1 Florence Nightingale Medal
    • 3.2 Declaration of Florence Nightingale
    • 3.3 Museums
    • 3. 4 days
    • 3.5 Monuments
    • 3.6 Other awards

      • 3.6.1 Medical field
      • 3.6.2 Schools
      • 3.6.3 Miscellaneous
    • 3.7 Florence Nightingale in culture

      • 3.7.1 Literature
      • 3.7.2 Movies
      • 3.7.3 TV series
      • 3.7.4 Games
    • 3.8 Music
  • 4 Bibliography

    • 4.1 Works by Florence Nightingale

      • 4.1.1 Original editions and reissues
      • 4.1.2 Latest scientific publications
    • 4.2 Work on Florence Nightingale
  • 5 See also

    • 5.1 Related articles
    • 5.2 External links
  • 6 Notes and references

    • 6.1 Notes
    • 6.2 Links


family background

Embley Park, Florence Nightingale’s family home, has been turned into a school.

Florence Nightingale came from a wealthy British secular family. His father, William Edward Shore (1794 – 1875), inherited in 1815 from his maternal uncle Peter Nightingale: he received his estate from Leah Hurst in Derbyshire, and the name and coat of arms of Nightingale. Mother Florence Frances Fanny Smith (1789 — 1880), daughter of abolitionist William Smith.

William Nightingale and Fanny Smith married in 1818 and embarked on a two-year journey through Europe. In 1819, their first child, a girl, was born in Naples, in the Partenope region. Their second child was born in 1820 at the Villa Colombia in Florence, from which she also takes her name.

The family returned to England at the end of 1820 and settled in Lee Hurst. In 1825, William Nightingale purchased at Romsey (Hampshire) a more winter-friendly estate, Embley Park, which became the principal family residence.

Youth (1820-1844)

Florence is brought up by her parents. At the age of 9, she knows French very well, she writes her mother a prayer in English. From 1831, his father took over his education, teaching him Latin, Greek, German, Italian, as well as history and philosophy.

The Nightingales are members of the Unitarian Church, a liberal and slightly dogmatic Christian denomination, some elements of which later marked the life of Florence: belief in social progress, the importance of serving the community. Letters from the 1830s show that at this time the Nightingales were organizing and funding medical care for the villagers around Lee Hurst. Florence’s diary shows that she is already sensitive to the problem of the living conditions of the poor, especially in connection with the suicide of a young mother.

At An outbreak of influenza struck the south of England. Florence, who is unharmed, devotes herself to intensive care for patients in her environment for four weeks, playing the role of «nurse, housekeeper, moral support and doctor.» Then comes an important event in his life: in Embley Park she writes in her diary: «God spoke to me and called me to his service. »

At the end of 1837, the Soloviev family went on a year and a half trip to France and Italy, and then returned to England. . In early May, Florence is presented to the court of Queen Victoria. In June, she began studying mathematics during a stay with her cousin Lee Hurst, who is studying mathematics at Oxford. Her parents, especially her mother, who would like her to marry, were at first very reluctant to this new center of interest, but Florence achieves, through the influence of her Aunt May Smith, that she is given a mentor. She is also a student of the mathematician James Joseph Sylvester.

Letters from this period show that she considered the life she led from 1839 to 1844 trivial. Stays at Lea Hurst and Embley Park were interrupted by long visits to relatives or acquaintances, as well as stays in London during the social season (ball season). The Nightingales cannot bring members of the British nobility to their home, but they do receive famous guests: Lord Palmerston, Leopold von Ranke, Charles Darwin, Anne Isabella Milbank, Lord Byron’s widow and his daughter Ada Lovelace, and Prussian Ambassador Christian von Bunsen, whose her influence was great.

Decisive years (1844-1854)

Meeting with Samuel Gridley Howe

1844 is marked by his meeting with the American doctor Samuel Gridley Howe and his wife, writer Julia Ward. Howe is the founder of the first schools for the blind in the United States. When asked by Florence if he thinks it unacceptable for a young girl like her (from high society) to become a nurse, he replies that although it is unusual and inappropriate in England, if she has this vocation, she should follow what she considers it her duty.

In December 1844, in response to the death of a patient in the workhouse infirmary, an event which then caused a scandal, she became a major activist for the improvement of medical care in the infirmaries and promptly received the support of Charles Villiers, then chairman. Council for the Affairs of the Poor . This motivates her to become actively involved in the reform of the Poor Law, which goes well beyond medical care. She then played a crucial role as a mentor to Agnes Elizabeth Jones and other nurses in training before sending them to Liverpool Workhouse Infirmary .

The first steps to the profession of a nurse

In the summer of 1845, she announced to her parents that she had decided to become a nurse. Having witnessed the death of a patient shortly before due to the caregiver’s incompetence, she feels that there is an urgent need to organize nursing education; she intends to complete a three-month training at Salisbury Hospital and then establish a nursing home with a Protestant equivalent of Catholic nurses.

This project met with absolute resistance for the first time. The principle of good society is that the sick are taken care of at home; hospitals for the poor.

She repeated her request at the beginning of 1846, this time writing to her father, not wanting to expose herself to the hassle of a direct conversation. But her parents again refuse.

However, in June 1846 she visited the hospital founded in London by Christian von Bunsen, the first hospital she visited. She read books on hospitals and public health issues, which were the subject of intense reflection in the 1840s; she probably read « Report by Edwin Chadwick on the Sanitary Conditions of the Working Class of Great Britain» , published in 1842.

Travel period (1847-1850)

In the mid-1840s, Florence Nightingale was courted by Richard Monckton Milnes, politician and poet. She appreciates his personality and his commitment to fighting hunger in Ireland. Postponing her decision to a later date, she goes on a trip to Rome with a couple who are friends of the Nightingales, Charles and Selina Bracebridge. This gives her a lot of freedom and she takes the opportunity to visit several hospitals.

In Rome she met Sidney Herbert, a brilliant politician who served as Minister of War from 1845 to 1846, a post he would take up again during the Crimean War. Herbert is already married, but he and Florence immediately find each other attractive and will remain very close throughout their lives. Herbert would play a pivotal role in Florence Nightingale’s career, assisting her pioneering efforts in Crimea in the field of nursing, and she would be an important advisor to him in his political career.

Upon her return from Rome, she rejects Milnes’ marriage plan, but not categorically. Their relationship did not end until 1851, when Milnes became engaged to Annabelle Crewe.

Around this time, Florence Nightingale also maintained a close relationship with Benjamin Jowett, especially at the time when she was considering establishing a chair in applied statistics at the University of Oxford.

At the end of 1849 she set out again on a journey across bridges, this time to Greece and Egypt. She left quite a few writings on these trips. AT for example, she goes up the Nile to Abu Simbel, about which she writes: «I think I have never seen anything that moved me more.» In Thebes, she again feels the power of the divine call.

Kaiserswerth (1850-1851)

On the way back, the travelers spend two weeks in Kaiserswerth, near Düsseldorf in Prussia, where there is a hospital founded by Theodor Fliedner and run by the order of deaconesses, as Christian von Bunsen told him as early as 1846. deeply impressed by the quality of care, as well as the dedication and practice of the sisters.

In early 1851, she finally received permission from her parents to complete a three-month course as a Kaiserswerth sister. This permission was likely the result of her parents’ fear for Florence’s life, given that she became seriously depressed after returning from her trip. During her internship at Kaiserwerth, she learned how to heal wounds, prepare medicines; she meets the dying and works as an assistant. She comes home confident that she can realize her projects. She reports that she had the most important and intense experience of her divine calling.

A little later in the same year she published her first book: Kaiserswerth Institute on the Rhine for the practical training of deaconesses .

Beginnings in nursing (1852-1854)

It was at the end of 1852 when Nightingale’s parents fully accepted his plans. She then went on an internship at a hospital in Paris, which she interrupted on to help her dying grandmother. In April, she accepted an offer made to her shortly before to open a medical center in London.

At Florence Nightingale therefore took up the post of Superintendent at Institute for the Nursing of Sick Women , located at 1 Upper Harley Street, London, where she resided. She is not paid; she lives on a pension paid to her by her father (£500 a year), which allows her to live comfortably.

This institution, founded in 1850, is to provide access to health care for women from good families, but whose income is insufficient to cover the cost of private care. Patients are often housekeepers, one of the rare female professions considered respectable, as well as the wives of pastors, small merchants and officers. Initially, the institute had 27 beds.

She introduced there a number of practices she considered necessary and quickly rose to prominence: in 1854 she negotiated a position as head nurse at King’s College Hospital London (Southwark).

Crimean War and Scutari Hospital

The Crimean War, which began in 1853, pitted Russia against the coalition formed by the Ottoman Empire, Great Britain, France and the Kingdom of Sardinia. British troops began to withdraw in early 1854. Before reaching the front, they suffered significant losses in the Varna transit camp, where 60,000 French and British soldiers were concentrated. About 20% suffer from cholera, dysentery or other ailments. Over 1,000 British soldiers died during this time. After the Battle of Alma in September, the wounded suffered from the disadvantages of being transported to the military hospital at Scutari (now Üsküdar in Istanbul). But, unlike in the past, there are now press correspondents to educate public opinion, notably William Howard Russell of The Times , one of the first modern war correspondents. He insisted, in particular, on the difference between the health services of the British Army and those of the French Army, which were better organized.

In response to this information, Florence Nightingale plans a humanitarian intervention, for which she receives the support of the authorities, in particular Lord Palmerston, Home Secretary, Lord Clarendon, Foreign Secretary, and especially Sidney Herbert, Wartime Secretary of State. She initially assumes that there will only be 20 nurses per mission, but agrees with Sidney Herbert that she will have a double staff. The nurses chosen come from Catholic Nursing Orders (interested because a large number of British soldiers are Irish), as well as the philanthropist Felicia Skene’s volunteer group and the Anglican Sisters’ group associated with the Oxford Movement. Fourteen are nurses. During the preparation of a letter to readers “ Times» show the public’s skepticism about the value of «ladies» ( ladies ) demonstrating the harsh reality of military hospitals and the brutality of soldiers.

At Nightingale and a group of 38 volunteer nurses are sent (with the permission of Sidney Herbert) to Turkey, about 545 kilometers from Balaklava in the Crimea, across the Black Sea, where the British camp is based.

Florence Nightingale greets the wounded at Scutari (Jerry Barrett).

Florence Nightingale ( Lady with a Lamp ) during the Crimean War (Henrietta Ray).

Nightingale arrives early at the Selimiye barracks in Scutari. The nurses find that the wounded soldiers are being ignored by the overburdened medical staff in the face of the officers’ indifference. Stocks of drugs are limited, hygiene is not respected, mass infections are common, most of which are fatal. There is also no equipment for preparing food for patients.

Nightingale and his compatriots begin with a complete cleaning of the hospital and equipment and a reorganization of patient care. However, at the beginning of his stay in Scutari, the mortality did not decrease; on the contrary, it begins to increase. The death toll exceeds that of all other hospitals in the region. In the winter of 1854-1855 At Scutari, 4,077 soldiers died, ten times more from diseases such as typhoid, typhoid, cholera, and dysentery, than from battle wounds. Conditions in the makeshift military hospital are lethal to patients due to overcrowding, faulty sewers and lack of ventilation. In March 1855, almost six months after Nightingale’s arrival, the British government was to send a health commission to Scutari. Cleaned sewer pipes and improved ventilation; then the mortality rate declines rapidly.

Nightingale still believes that the cause of death is poor food and supplies, as well as overwork of the soldiers. It was not until she returned to the UK and collected information from the Royal Commission on Army Health that she began to believe that most of the soldiers in the hospital died due to poor health and living conditions. This experience influenced her career: she later confirmed the importance of sanitation. Thus, he contributes to reducing the number of deaths in the army in peacetime and directs its attention to the sanitary design of hospitals.

A public meeting organized by and receiving recognition for her wartime work led to the creation of the Nightingale Foundation for the training of nurses. Donations are coming in. Sidney Herbert is named Honorary Secretary and the Duke of Cambridge is President of the Foundation.

Nightingale is also considered a pioneer in the concept of medical tourism, as evidenced by her 1856 letters to Turkish spas, in which she detailed the health conditions, physical characteristics, diets, and other important details of the patients she treated. towards these stations is much cheaper than those found in Switzerland. Clearly, this directs resource-limited patients to affordable treatments.

Return to the Country: Commission on Health in the Army

Nightingale is welcomed as a heroine on her return to Britain in . According to the BBC, she is probably the most famous woman in the kingdom after Queen Victoria herself.

She leaves her family’s residence in Middle Claydon, Buckinghamshire, and moves to the Burlington Hotel in Piccadilly. She developed a fever, probably due to a chronic form of brucellosis (Crimean fever) contracted during the Crimean War, possibly in combination with chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia. She forbids her mother and sister from entering her room and rarely leaves it.

In response to an invitation from Queen Victoria, despite the restrictions imposed by her imprisonment, Nightingale played a central role in establishing the Royal Commission on Army Health, of which Sidney Herbert became president. As a woman, she cannot be a member, but writes a report of over a thousand pages, including detailed statistics, and plays a critical role in the implementation of her recommendations. The commission’s report led to an overhaul of soldier care and the establishment of a military medical school and an extensive system of military medical records.

Later career

In 1859 the Nightingale Foundation placed at its disposal the sum of £45,000, with which it created Nightingale School in St. Thomas’ Hospital. The school is now Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery and is part of King’s College London . The first trained nurses will begin work on 16 May at the Liverpool Workhouse Infirmary . Nightingale also runs a fundraising campaign for Buckinghamshire Royal Hospital in Aylesbury, near his family’s residence.

In 1860, Nightingale published Nursing Notes , a small 136-page book that served as the cornerstone for the program of the Nightingale School and other schools founded thereafter. The book is also popular with the general public and is considered a classic introductory guide to nursing.

Nightingale spent the rest of her life encouraging the growth and development of the nurse and transforming her into a modern form.

Her work inspired nurses during the Civil War (1861-1865). The northern government asks his advice to organize local health care. Although his ideas met with resistance from officers, they inspired U.S. Sanitary Commission Volunteer Corps .

In 1869, Nightingale and Elizabeth Blackwell opened Women’s Medical College .

In the 1870s, Nightingale mentored Linda Richards, «America’s first trained nurse», and enabled her to return to the United States with training and knowledge to establish quality nursing schools. Linda Richards will go on to become a great nursing pioneer in the United States and Japan.

By 1882, Nightingale’s nurses were growing in influence in the nascent profession. Some of them became senior nurses in several well-known hospitals, including at St Mary’s Hospital , Westminster Hospital and St Marylebone Workhouse Infirmary London, and Hospital for the Incurables Putney. We can also lead, in the UK, Royal Victoria Military Hospital in Netley, the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary , the Cumberland Infirmary , and the Liverpool Royal Infirmary , and in Australia, the Hospital Sydney in New South Wales.

In 1883 Nightingale was awarded the Royal Red Cross by Queen Victoria. In 1907, she became the first woman to be awarded the Order of Merit. In 1908 he was awarded City of London Honorary Freedom .

In 1896 Nightingale had to be put to bed. She may have been a victim of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). During these years in bed, she did pioneering work in hospital management, work that quickly spread throughout England and the rest of the world.

She dies on at his home in South Street, Mayfair, London. Her relatives refuse an offer to be buried in Westminster Abbey, and today she is buried in the graveyard of St Margaret’s Church in East Wellow in Hampshire.

Points of interest

According to the census in England and Wales, his home addresses were: East Wellow (Hampshire) in 1841, Burlington Hotel , Westminster St. James, Middlesex in 1851 and 1861, St. George -Hanover Square, London, in 1881, 1891 and 1901.

His death certificate is listed as follows: «Death September 1910 NIGHTINGALE Florence — age 90, Registrar St. Geo.H.Sq » .

At the beginning of his stay in Turkey, Nightingale rode on horseback to check. She then uses a donkey cart and reportedly escaped serious injury when the cart overturned in an accident. Since this incident, she has been using a sturdy Russian-made horse-drawn carriage with a waterproof roof and curtains. After the war, the car was transported to England and handed over to Nursing School Nightingale . It was damaged during the bombing of the hospital during the Blitz. It was subsequently restored and then transferred to Army Museum at Aldershot.

The voice of Florence Nightingale has been preserved for posterity thanks to an 1890 phonograph recording.

Florence Nightingale proved that 90% of patients in London hospitals died and only 60% of patients did not go to the hospital.

The work of Florence Nightingale

Contribution to statistics

From an early age, Nightingale proved to be especially gifted in mathematics and excelled in it thanks to the teachings of his father. She has a particular interest in statistics and frequently uses statistical analysis in her compilations, analyzes and presentations of health and public health data.

Chart of causes of death in the army in the East Florence Nightingale.

Nightingale is a pioneer in the visual presentation of information. It uses, among other things, pie charts, developed in 1801 by William Playfair. After the Crimean War, she began using an improved version of these charts (the equivalent of today’s histograms) to illustrate the seasonal causes of patient deaths in the military hospital he runs. Although he is often credited with being related, these diagrams were invented by André-Michel Guerry in 1829year, nearly three decades earlier.

Nightingale called a compilation of such diagrams « coxcomb «, but later this term is often used to refer to a separate diagram. She often uses shells , to present reports on the nature and extent of medical care during the Crimean War to members of parliament and officials who would probably not be able to read or understand traditional statistical reports.

Subsequently, Nightingale undertook a comprehensive statistical survey of the health care system in rural India and became a leading figure in the improvement of medical and public health services in India.

In 1858, she was the first woman to be elected Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society and subsequently became Honorary Fellow of the American Statistical Association .

Contributions to literature and the feminist movement

Although Nightingale is best known for her contributions to medicine and mathematics, she is also an important figure in English feminism and the abolition of prostitution.

Between 1850 and 1852 she struggled to define herself and against her family’s expectations that she would marry a man of high society.


ideas Offers

To put her thoughts in order, she writes Suggestions for Reflection for Seekers of Religious Truth . This three-volume book was never printed in its entirety, but one part, entitled Cassandra , was published in 1928 by Ray Strachey, including it in The Case , a chronicle of the history of the feminist movement.


Cassandra is a protest against the excessive feminization of women, which makes them practically unable to stand up for themselves. This is how Nightingale sees her mother and sister’s sluggish lifestyle despite their upbringing. The text also reflects his fear that his ideas will prove ineffective, such as those of Cassandra, a virgin priestess of Apollo who receives a prophecy inspired by the gods but whose prophetic warnings are ignored.

Elaine Showalter describes Cassandra from the «basic English text of feminism, the connection between Wollstonecraft and Woolf».


Florence Nightingale’s most significant contribution is her role in the development of the modern nursing profession. She was a wonderful example of compassion, dedication to patients, and conscientious and thoughtful leadership of hospitals.

The work of Nursing School « Nightingale» continues today, but in many ways its work continues to this day.

Florence Nightingale Medal

Florence Nightingale Medal.

Since 1907, the International Committee of the Red Cross has awarded the Florence Nightingale Medal to individuals who have distinguished themselves in nursing.

The original rules awarded the medal to six nurses per year. Since the 1991 regulations, the medal has been awarded every two years to women and men by decision of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). There can be no more than fifty assignments at your own discretion. This honorary title is no longer awarded only to nurses by profession, but to Red Cross employees who are volunteers or are involved in humanitarian and humanitarian work.

Thus, since its inception to 42- th promotion in 2010, the work of 1309 people was recognized, the first award of this medal took place in 1920 and was retroactively awarded for the work of 42 nurses.

The medal is presented in each country either by the head of state or by the president of the Central Committee of the National Society. Winners Announced Florence Nightingale Anniversary and International Nurse’s Day.

Young Florence Nightingale

In 2010, as an exception, three citizens of Haiti received the medal:

  • Germaine Pierre-Louis, Nurse, President of the South East Branch of the Haitian Red Cross;
  • Michel Colin, Head Nurse, Sanitarium Port-au-Prince;
  • Jude Celorge, leader of the Red Cross rescue team in Martissan (Port-au-Prince district).

Previous beneficiaries include:

  • in 2009: 28 laureates, including:
    • Anisa, Nurse, Jalalabad Hospital (Afghanistan)
    • Marieta Wanapa-Luydens, Netherlands, active lifeguard in Aruba
  • in 2007:
    • Judy Fairholme, Canada, International Child Welfare Program promoter.
    • Leman Birol, Turkey , nurse, breastfeeding mother in Turkey
  • Some other holders:
    • Pia Bauer (1871-1954), German nurse
    • Marie Adamczyk (1879-1973), nurse
    • Elsbeth von Ködell (1857-1953) German nurse (winner 1920 years)
    • Elsbet Kasser (1910-1992), Swiss nurse (1947 laureate)
    • Alexandrine Gräfin von Uexkull-Gyllenband (1873-1963), German nurse (winner in 1920)
    • Ernestine Tran (1899-1981), German nurse (winner in 1963)
    • Emmy Dörfel (1908-2002), German nurse (winner in 1963)
    • Maria Hafner (1891-1969), Red Cross volunteer (winner in 1963)
    • Anthony Stemmler (1892-1976), German teacher (19th laureate67 years old)

Declaration of Florence Nightingale

This is a campaign launched worldwide by nursing leaders as part of the Nightingale for Global Health (NIGH) initiative.

It aims to create a global grassroots movement to present to the United Nations General Assembly in 2008 two resolutions proclaiming International Nurses’ Day 2010 (centenary of Nightingale’s death) and UN Decade for a Healthy World (United Nations Decade for a Healthy World) from 2011 to 2020 (200th anniversary of the birth of Nightingale).

NIGH is also working to update awareness on topics raised by Nightingale such as preventive medicine and holistic health.


  • Florence Nightingale Museum London (located near Westminster Bridge, opposite the Houses of Parliament)
  • Claydon House in Middle Claydon, Buckinghamshire, formerly owned by Nightingale Partenope, is dedicated to the Nightingale family.
  • in Istanbul the northernmost tower Selimiye Barracks is now a museum; some of his writings feature relics and reproductions associated with Florence Nightingale and her nurses.

A comprehensive site in her honor was created by Country Joe McDonald in connection with the Vietnam War, during which she inspired many US Army medics, sparking new interest in her life and work.


International Nurses Day is celebrated every year on his birthday.

Several churches in the Anglican Communion commemorate Nightingale with a feast in their liturgical calendars. So is the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, which celebrates Nightingale in the Society of a Restorer along with Clara Maass on August 13th.

At is the date of World Fibromyalgia Day. It was chosen as a tribute to Florence Nightingale, born on who suffered most of his life from this chronic disease, characterized by general diffuse pain or burning sensation from head to toe, with a feeling of deep fatigue, without injury. A painful condition that can lead to disability. This disease affects 3% of the population. It mainly affects women.


On a bronze plaque attached to the pedestal of the Crimean memorial at the Haydarpasha cemetery in Istanbul, opened on 1954 on Empire Day, commemorating the 100th anniversary of her nursing service in this region, there is the following inscription:

«Florence Nightingale, whose work, done a century ago near this cemetery, alleviated much human suffering and laid the foundations of the nurse. »

Other tributes

Statue of F. Nightingale in Waterloo Square, London

The name Florence Nightingale has been given to many places or institutions:

Medical field
  • Nursing Training Institute (IFSI) in Talence (Gironde), founded in 1884
  • one of the buildings of the University of Southampton School of Nursing and Midwifery.
  • Three hospitals in Istanbul are called Nightingale and all of them belong to the Turkish Heart Foundation :
    • FN Hastanesi in Şişli (largest private hospital in Turkey),
    • Metropolitan F.N. Khastanesi in Gairettepe,
    • Avrupa F. N. Hastanesi in Mecidiyekoy;
  • Bedside Florence , a wireless computer system designed to assist nursing staff at the Agostino Gemelli Medical Center in Rome, Italy’s first clinical hospital;
  • many foundations, most of them related to nursing, as well as Nightingale Research Foundation in Canada, dedicated to the study and treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome.
  • medical evacuation aircraft model (McDonnell Douglas C-9A «Nightingale»), whose fleet in the US Air Force consists of 20 aircraft.
  • in New York, Chicago, Vancouver, Brussels …
  • There is a Florence Nightingale School of Nursing in Anapolis, Brazil.
  • A portrait of Florence Nightingale appears on the reverse of the £10 note issued in the United Kingdom from to .
  • The near-Earth asteroid (3122) Florence, discovered in 1981, is named after him.
  • An oval-shaped relief on the surface of Venus, Nightingale Corona, is also named after her.
  • promotion in 2007-2009 directors of student hospitals at the School of Advanced Public Health Studies.
  • Retired aircraft (model MD-11) of KLM.
  • There is a psychological effect called «effect Florence Nightingale » when nurses and doctors fall in love with their patients.
  • The Florence Nightingale effect is mentioned by Dr. Emmett Brown in the first film of the Back to the Future trilogy.

Florence Nightingale in culture

  • Miss Florence Nightingale is one of two characters in Whistling Psyche ( Calling Psyche , 2010), a play by Irish author Sebastian Barrie.
  • Florence Nightingale is the protagonist of The Ghost and the Lady, tracing her life from her early days as a nurse to the end of the Crimean War.
  • In the manga Afterschool Charisma , Florence Nightingale’s clone is one of the main characters.
  • In Enola Holmes’s Investigations , volume 5 of Enola Holmes’s Investigations , the young heroine met Florence Nightingale in 1889.
  • In the manga The Spirit and Mary from Kazuhiro Fujita, Florence Nightingale is one of the two main characters.
  • In the manga Pétales de réincarnation en france in komikku, Nightingale and the previous life of great people, the power that comes with reincarnation, and a reference to advancement in the field of medicine.
  • 1912: Victoria Cross , silent film dedicated to her biography
  • 1915: Florence Nightingale , silent film
  • 1936: White Angel
  • 1951: The Lady with the Lamp , British period film.
  • 1985: Florence Nightingale , acquired in 2008, original English version and translated into French.
TV show
  • In the series Victoria the queen meets Florence Nightingale (season 3, episode 4)
  • In episode «Junior Mint» of the US TV series Seinfeld , George mixes Nightingale with Clara Barton, calling her Clara Nightingale.
  • In the television series Star Trek: Voyager , Ensign Harry Kim gives his name to an alien medical vessel.
  • In Movie Back to the Future , Doc Brown invokes the «Florence Nightingale effect» with Marty McFly.
  • In Season 6 Episode 3 Key Not My Daughters , Cate dresses up as Florence Nightingale for the Toddlers’ High School Halloween Party.
  • In The Sopranos, Tony brings up memories of Florence Nightingale when his sister offers to take care of their mother.
  • In Buffy the Vampire Slayer , episode «Spiral» (season 5, episode 20), Spike says of Buffy briefly examining her after her injury: «Bloody Florence Nightingale comes to the rescue.» »
  • In episode 61 of the manga Candy Candy : The doctor tells the story of Nightingale Candy, who also wants to become a nurse.
  • In Dr. Quinn Season 1 Season 6 episode «Doctor Woman «, Colleen says she wants to dress up as Florence Nightingale for Alice’s birthday.
  • In the TV series Sick Note , she is mentioned in the 2nd episode of the 3rd season.
  • In The Good Place , she is mentioned in the very first episode. We learn that she couldn’t access «the right place».
  • In Criminal Minds , season 13, episode 2, Spencer Reid induces the «Florence Nightingale effect».
  • In Californication Season 6 Episode 9, Karen ironically compares Faith, who at the time represented Hank’s muse, to one Florence Nightingale who knew how to support her through the turmoil.
  • In the video game Worms , the Florence Nightingale Trophy is sometimes awarded at the end of the game to the team that has collected the most health crates.
  • In the video game Assassin’s Creed Syndicate , Florence Nightingale is one of the historical characters that the main characters of the game encounter.
  • In the video game Age of Empire III: The Asian Dynasties , the British have the ability to send a card called «Florence Nightingale» from their hometown, which allows the mansions to slowly heal nearby units.
  • In the video game Fate/Grand Order , Florence Nightingale is one of the various «servants» the player can summon.


In the song «Flag Day» from their first album, the Housemartins allude to this by singing «Too much Florence Nightingale, not enough Robin Hood»: «Too much Florence Nightingale, not enough Robin Hood».


Works by Florence Nightingale

Caring for the sick: what to do, what to avoid : a work translated from English with the permission of the author, preceded by a letter from M. Guizot and an introduction by M. Duremberg. (Paris: in the academic bookstore Didier et Ce)

Original editions and reissues
  • Kaiserswerth on the Rhine: for the practical training of deaconesses under the direction of the Reverend. Pastor Flidner, Embracing … Schools and Women’s Prison , 1851 (Reissue: 1959)
  • Notes on Nursing: What Nursing Is and Isn’t , D. Appleton and Company, New York , available online at): [1], translated into French in 1862 and available online (see illustration opposite).
  • «Introduction» to Una and Her Beggars, Memorials to Agnes Elizabeth Jones , George Routledge and Sons, New York, 1872 (Reprint: Diggory Press, Liskeard, 2005 (ISBN 978-13223) ). Agnes Jones (1832-1868) is the English nurse in whose honor this multi-authored book is published.
Latest scientific publications
  • Vincent Quinn and John Furst (eds), Dear Miss Nightingale , Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1987, 359 p. Correspondence between Florence Nightingale and Benjamin Jowett. A review by F.B. Smith (National Australian University) is available at the History of Medicine website.
  • Florence Nightingale in Egypt and Greece: her diary and visions , New York University, Albany, 1997, 167 pp. (ISBN 0-7914-3115-0)
  • Collected Works of Florence Nightingale , Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo (ON), presentation available online [2] and [3] . Publication began in 2001. Editors: Lynn McDonald and Gerard Vallee (vols. 4, 9and 10).

    • 1. Florence Nightingale: an introduction to her life and family , 908 p. (ISBN 0-88920-387-3)
    • 2. Florence Nightingale’s Spiritual Journey: Bible Annotations, Sermons and Diaries , 586 pp. (ISBN 0-88920-366-0)
    • 3. The Theology of Florence Nightingale: Essays, Letters and Diaries , 678 pp. (ISBN 0-88920-371-7)
    • 4. Florence Nightingale on Mysticism and Eastern Religions , 558 p. (ISBN 0-88920-413-6)
    • 5. Florence Nightingale on Society and Politics, Philosophy, Science, Education and Literature , 871 p. (ISBN 978-0-88920-429-4)
    • 6. Florence Nightingale on Public Health , 714 pp. (ISBN 978-0-88920-446-1)
    • 7. European Travel Florence Nightingale , 802 p. (ISBN 978-0-88920-451-5)
    • 8. Florence Nightingale on women, medicine, midwifery and prostitution , 1085 p. (ISBN 978-0-88920-466-9)
    • 9. Florence Nightingale on health in India , 1024 p. (ISBN 978-0-88920-468-3)
    • 10. Florence Nightingale on Social Change in India , 976 pp. (ISBN 978-0-88920-495-9)
    • 11. Recommendations Florence Nightingale for reflection , 794 pp. (ISBN 978-0-88920-465-2)
    • 12. Florence Nightingale: Nightingale School , 904 p. (ISBN 978-0-88920-467-6)
    • 13. Florence Nightingale: Advanced Care , 950 p. (ISBN 978-0-88920-520-8)
    • 14. Florence Nightingale: The Crimean War , 1096 p. (ISBN 978-0-88920-469-0)
    • 15. Florence Nightingale on Wars and the War Office , 1056 pp. (ISBN 978-0-88920-470-6)
    • 16. Florence Nightingale and Hospital Reform (ISBN 978-1-55458-534-2)

Working on Florence Nightingale

In French
  • Gilbert Sinue, Lady with a lamp. Life of Florence Nightingale , Editions France-Loisirs, Paris, 2008, 283 pp. (ISBN 9782-298-01906-3)
  • Monica Eileen Bailey, Florence Nightingale in her writings , InterEditions, Paris, 1993, 147 pp. (ISBN 2-7296-0446-4) . Translated from English.
  • Marie de Viviers, Lady with Lamp , Éditions Gérard, Verviers, 1958, 157 pp. BnF Notice
  • Cara Giaimo, Florence Nightingale was born 197 years ago and her infographic was better than most on the web , Atlas obscura, 12 May 2017, online .
  • Mark Bostridge, Florence Nightingale The Woman and Her Legend , Penguin Books, London, 2009 (ISBN 978-0-14-026392-3) .
  • Helen Rappaport, No Room for Women — The Untold Story of Women in the Crimean War , Aurum Press, London, 2007 (ISBN 978-1-84513-314-6) .
  • Barbara Montgomer Dossey, Florence Nightingale: mystic, seer, healer , Springhouse Corporation, Springhouse, 2000 (ISBN 0-87434-984-2) .
  • Cecil Woodham-Smith, Florence Nightingale , Penguin Books, London 1951.
  • Biographical note, at Oxford Dictionary of National Biography , Oxford University Press, 2004, available from Oxforddnb.
  • John J. O’Connor and Edmund F. Robertson, Florence Nightingale , on the MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive website.
  • «Florence Nightingale» at American Statistical Association site .
  • «Florence Nightingale» at Biographyshelf
  • Martin Pugh, The Women’s March: A Revisionist Analysis of the Women’s Suffrage Campaign 1866-1914 years Oxford 2000
  • Nancy Boyd Sokoloff, Three Victorian Women Who Changed Their World , Macmillan, London, 1982.
  • Lytton Strachey , eminent Victorians: Cardinal Manning, Florence Nightingale, Dr. Arnold, General Gordon (1918)
  • Wolfgang Genschorec, Schwester Florence Nightingale , Teubner, Leipzig, 1990 (ISBN 3-322-00327-2)

See Also

Related Articles

Nightingale’s Oath: Florence Nightingale’s Oath.

  • Valerie de Gasparin, founder in 1859 of the world’s first secular nursing school, the École de La Source in Lausanne.
  • Mary Seacole
  • Jon Snow
  • Nightingale’s Oath
  • Eltier de Bosch Kemper, founder of the first training course for professional nurses in the Netherlands.
  • Status of women in Victorian society
  • Florence Nightingale Effect (en)
  • Ivan Ilyich
  • (3122) Florence

External links

  • Authority records :

    • Virtual international authority file
    • International Standard Name Identifier
    • CiNii
    • National Library of France (data)
    • University Records System
    • Library of Congress
    • Gemeinsame Normdatei
    • National Diet Library
    • National Library of Spain
    • Royal Library of the Netherlands
    • National Library of Israel
    • University Library of Poland
    • National Library of Catalonia
    • National Library of Sweden
    • Western Swiss Library Network
    • Vatican Apostolic Library
    • National Library of Australia
    • Norwegian Library Base
    • WorldCat
  • (en) Florence Nightingale’s statistical chart on the Agnes Scott College website .
  • (en) Voice recording of Florence Nightingale (1895).
  • (en) New photo of Lady Lamp on the BBC website.
  • ( fr ) Florence Nightingale on Project Gutenberg .
  • (In) Animated Hero Classics: Florence Nightingale , a 1993 cartoon at the Internet Movie Database.
  • (in) Florence Nightingale Museum.
  • (en) Claydon House 1 and 2
  • (en) Florence Nightingale, the true creator of the nurse. .
  • (o) Model specialists and identification of nursing students (a) in the early XX — th century in France.
  • Portrait of Florence Nightingale on CROSS Files, Archives and ICRC 9 Blog Library0070

Notes and links

  • (fr) This article is taken in whole or in part from the English Wikipedia article titled «Florence Nightingale» (see list of authors) . Benjamin Jowett (1817–1893): Oxford professor, then university administrator.
  • ↑ His diary, letters to family. See Bibliography: Florence Nightingale in Egypt and Greece .
  • ↑ English page quote: « I don’t think I’ve ever seen anything that affected me more than this. »
  • ↑ Theodor Fliedner (1800-1864): Evangelical Lutheran pastor, founder in 1836 of the deaconess community of Kaiserswerth.
  • ↑ International Fibromyalgia Day — Birth Anniversary of Florence Nightingale, May 12.
  • International CFS Awareness Day (International CFS Prevention Day) celebrates its birthday today
  • Recommendations

    1. ↑ Florence Nightingale — Legend.
    2. ↑ Perspectives: Comparative Education Quarterly Review. Paris, UNESCO: International Bureau of Education, vol. XXVIII, no. 1, March 1998, pp. 173–189. © UNESCO: International Bureau of Education, 200.
    3. a and b « Mental health — Florence Nightingale: iconic character. Analysis of a case of the pursuit of knowledge in the service of nurses ”, available at www.santementale.fr (consultation 23 May 2017)
    4. (c) « Florence Nightingale | Biography and Facts » in Encyclopædia Britannica (accessed 8 August 2020)
    5. ↑ The city of Florence is also called Florence in English.
    6. ↑ Bostridge, p. 33.
    7. (en-US) « Florence Nightingale | Encyclopedia.com » Available at www.encyclopedia.com (accessed August 8, 2020)
    8. ↑ Bostridge, pp. 53.
    9. a and b Bostridge, p. 49.
    10. ↑ Letter to sister, quoted by Bostridge, pp. 50 .
    11. ↑ English: God spoke to me and called me into his service , quoted by M. E. Holliday and D. L. Parker, «Florence Nightingale, Feminism and Nursing», in Journal of Advanced Nursing , 1997 , p. 483-488.
    12. Collected Works , Volume 7, p. 44-46 .
    13. ↑ Dossi, pp. 43-45.
    14. ↑ Bostridge, pp. 70-71.
    15. ↑ See Sylvester biography on MacTutor (University of St. Andrews)
    16. ↑ Bostridge, pp. 81-82.
    17. ↑ Bostridge, pp. 84-85.
    18. ↑ English quotation: My dear Miss Florence, that would be unusual, and in England anything unusual is apt to be considered unsuitable; but I say to you, go ahead if you have a calling to this way of life; act according to your inspiration and you will find that there is never anything improper or indecent in the performance of one’s duty for the benefit of others…9Letter from Fanny Nightingale May Smith, quoted by Bostridge, pp. 182.
    19. ↑ William Howard Russell: 1820–1907.
    20. ↑ Rappaport, p. 95 .
    21. a b c d e f and g Medarus, « Florence NIGHTINGALE (1820-1910) «, on medarus.org (accessed 23 May 2017)
    22. ↑ Rappaport, p. 107
    23. ↑ Rappaport, p. 106 .
    24. ↑ « Agora Encyclopedia» | Nightingale Florence «, Encyclopedia L’Agora , (read online, consultation May 23, 2017)
    25. ↑ Pete Moore, Big ideas that changed our world , Acropolis, , 192 p. (ISBN 2-7357-0236-7) : «Florence Nightingale realizes the power of public opinion in her country: she sends an account of these appalling conditions of care to one of her acquaintances who works for The Times newspaper in London. British Medical Journal , Florence Nightingale’s Fever (1995, 311:1697-1700).
    26. ↑ http://www.countryjoe.com/nightingale/joe_grave.jpg
    27. ↑ Florence Nightingale: Grave in East Wellow
    28. ↑ « Florence Nightingale, nurse and statistician (1820-1910) | Women in Science, Women in Science » on savants.pressbooks.com (accessed May 23, 2017)
    29. (in) Michael Friendly, « The Life and Works of André-Michel Guerry (1802-1866) » [PDF] at https://www.datavis.ca, ( as of February 22, 2021 ) , page 8
    30. ↑ «The main text of English feminism, the connection between Wollstonecraft and Woolf. British Journal of Nursing , June 5, 1920, page 334.
    31. ↑ « Nightingale Declaration » on NIGHVision.net (accessed May 24, 2017)
    32. ↑ Tower
    33. ↑ Tribute to Country Joe Macdonald Florence Nightingale
    34. ↑ «Florence Nightingale, whose work near this cemetery a century ago alleviated much human suffering and laid the foundation for nursing. «Commonwealth War Graves Commission Haidar Pasha
    36. ↑ http://www.gesi.it/MS%20bedside(e).pdf
    37. Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore — Roman Campus
    38. ↑ « Nightingale — Home » at www.nightingale.ca (accessed May 24, 2017)
    39. ↑ https://guia-goias.escolasecreches.com.br/escolas-e-creches/ESCOLA-DE-ENFERMAGEM-FLORENCE-NIGHTINGALE-anapolis-anapolis-goias-i52020819.htm
    40. (in) Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Volume 1, Lutz D. Schmadel, International Astronomical Union, Springer Science & Business Media, August 2003
    41. ↑ « Planetary Names: Corona, coronae: Nightingale Corona on Venus «, on planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov (accessed June 17, 2020)
    42. ↑ KLM McDonnell Douglas MD-11 PH-KCD — Photo by Airfleets.net
    43. ↑ « https://www.senscritique.com/liste/L_effet_Florence_Nightingale/44914 »
    44. ↑ See Amazon website

    May 12 — World Nurses Day


    On May 12, , the birthday of the founder of modern nursing, Florence Nightingale (1820-1910), nurses around the world celebrate their professional holiday — World Nurse’s Day .

    During the Crimean War (1853-1856) Nightingale worked with a group of nuns and sisters of mercy in the English infirmary in Scutari (now Uskudar, within Istanbul, Turkey) and in the field hospital in Balaklava (now a district in the south of Sevastopol, Russia) .

    Consistently implemented the principles of sanitation and care for the wounded. As a result, in less than six months, the death rate in infirmaries dropped from 42% to 2.2%.
    Returning to England, Nightingale opened the first specialized nursing school.

    In Russia, the profession of a nurse was established by Peter I in 1722, signing the «Decree on the Appointment of Nuns in Hospitals». However, it was canceled by Catherine II. A century and a half passed and doctors, realizing that the work of nurses is extremely necessary in caring for the sick, at the end of the 19th century began to petition for the introduction of nurses into the staff. In 1871, Regulations were approved for nurses assigned to work in military hospitals. Later they appeared in hospitals.

    The decision to establish the International Day of Nurses belongs to the International Council, established in 1899 year. It was the first professional organization for women in the world, in which nurses from Australia, Canada, Denmark, Great Britain, the USA and other countries actively worked.

    The Russian Nurses Association (RAMS) was founded in 1992 on the initiative of nurses and the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation.

    Since 2005, the Russian Nurses Association has been a member of the International Council of Nurses, which currently unites more than 20 million nurses around the world.

    Nightingale’s activities were widely known and greatly contributed to the creation by Henri Dunant of the International Committee of the Red Cross, which in 1912 established the Florence Nightingale Medal, which is the world’s most honorary award for nurses. The award is given to nurses and volunteers in the medical service for bravery and dedication in both war and peace. The first Nightingale medal was awarded to our compatriots at 1961 years old. It was handed over to the participants of the Great Patriotic War: guard lieutenant colonel of the tank troops, writer, Hero of the Soviet Union, Muscovite Irina Levchenko and surgical sister from Leningrad Lidia Savchenko.

    Every year, the International Council of Nurses (MCM) determines the theme of the International Nurse’s Day, the slogan under which conferences, seminars, and round tables are held in many countries. In 2020, it will be held under the motto «Nurses — the leading voice in achieving health around the world.»

    On the occasion of the bicentennial anniversary of the birth of Florence Nightingale, the World Health Organization has also declared 2020 the International Year of the Nurse and Midwife.

    Nurses are directly involved in the fight against coronavirus, putting all their experience and professionalism, their best personal qualities and determination into it!

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