Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping — Printable Parents
Heard all the buzz about phoneme-grapheme mapping? It’s the most efficient and effective way to read and spell.
It was March 2020. Distance learning had just begun. I sat with my first grade daughter as she struggled to write anything – even a single word.
For the first time, it became crystal clear to me – my daughter couldn’t segment words into separate phonemes. That’s teacher speak that she just couldn’t hear sounds in words. She couldn’t even spell the word, “pet.”
While I told my husband I thought she had a learning disability, I still knew I needed to find a way to help her learn to hear sounds and write them down.
One day, I grabbed the same plastic counters we had been using for math.
I said, “Pet.”
I grabbed three counters and tapped each one for the sounds /p/ /e/ /t/. From then on, we used this little trick to help her hear sounds in words.
But I knew she needed a systematic way to hear the sounds that make up words (phonemes) and connect them to letters (graphemes).
That’s when I discovered using Elkonin boxes for phoneme-grapheme mapping. If this sounds confusing, don’t worry. I have you covered.
This is the beginner’s guide to phoneme-grapheme mapping.
What is the phoneme-grapheme connection?
First, let’s define both phoneme and grapheme:
- Phoneme is the smallest sound in a spoken word.
- Grapheme is the written symbol (letter or letters) that represent a sound.
So simply, the phoneme-grapheme connection is the relationship between sounds and letters. By making the phoneme-grapheme connection, students learn that words are made of sounds.
What is phoneme-grapheme mapping used for?
Phoneme-grapheme mappping is used to help students learn to read and spell words. In short, it improves word recognition and word writing skills.
Phoneme-grapheme mapping improves a child’s:
- phonemic awareness
- word recognition
It is one of the most effective and efficient ways to help a child to read and spell well. Because children see the written symbols to the speech sounds, it is stored in the language center of the brain.
What is the difference between orthographic mapping and phoneme-grapheme mapping?
Orthographic mapping is the cognitive process where a brain permanently stores words in memory. We can’t teach orthographic mapping to our students or our children.
We can do activities that promote the process of orthographic mapping. Phoneme-grapheme mapping develops orthographic mapping.
What is the purpose of phoneme-grapheme mapping?
The purpose of phoneme-grapheme mapping is to help children learn how sounds are spelled with letters. Your child takes a word from its speech sounds (phonemes) and puts it into letters (graphemes).
Phonemic awareness skills help your child learn that a spoken word is made up of individual sounds. Your child needs phonemic awareness to be a strong reader and speller.
Phoneme-grapheme mapping also makes children explicitly aware that the letters on a page represent the sounds in language.
While this might seem obvious to you, a lot of children are not aware that:
- language is made up of sounds, and
- words are groups of sounds that put together in order to carry meaning.
What are the steps in phoneme-grapheme mapping?
The steps in phoneme-grapheme mapping are:
- Say the word aloud to your child.
- Ask your child to repeat it.
- Give your child manipulatives to place on the phoneme-grapheme template.
- Your child segments the word by sounds and places one manipulative for each sound.
- Then your child will map the sounds with the letter or letters that spell each sound in its own box.
- Next, your child will spell or write the word on the lines.
- Finally, your child reads the word.
It’s pretty easy once you get the hang of it. Here’s an example:
Say the word to your child
Phoneme-grapheme mapping isn’t an independent activity initially. You need to say the word to your child or students.
I said the word theft to my child.
Your child repeats the word
Make sure that your child repeats the word. Sometimes I make this mistake but it’s really important for your child to hear themselves say the word.
Hearing the word develops phonemic awareness. When a child pronounces the word themselves, they will also feel how they say the sounds. Different sounds are made in different places in the mouth and this connection is so important.
Give your child manipulatives
Teachers have tons of manipulatives in their classrooms like linking cubes and counting chips. At home, you can use pom poms or coins. You could even use legos or rocks!
These are some fun manipulatives we use at home or in tutoring:
- linking cubes
- counting bears
Segment the word into sounds
Your child segments, or breaks, the words into its individual phonemes or sounds. They place one manipulative on the phoneme-grapheme mat for each sound they hear.
In the example of the word “theft,” a child places one pom pom for each sound /th/, /e/, /f/, and /t/.
Map the sounds
Next your child will map the sounds. This means they will connect the letters that spell the sounds to each sound they hear in the word. They write the letter or letters that spell each sound in its own box.
In our example word “theft,” the letters th are in one box because they spell the sound /th/.
Spell or write the word
After mapping the sounds, your child will spell the word as a whole unit. Seeing the word together makes the connection stronger for your child.
So my daughter wrote theft on the lines.
Read the word
Finally, your child will read the word. Hearing and seeing it at the same time after mapping helps solidify the new word.
On the printable activity above, my daughter slides her finger along the arrow as a multi-sensory way to read the word.
What does it mean to map sight words?
First, let’s define what the term “sight words” means in this question. It refers to high-frequency words like “said,” “had,” and “the.”
When most parents and teachers think of sight words, they think these words just need to be memorized. That’s not true. And it’s also an ineffective way to learn them.
Many sight words can be decoded completely and almost all have at least one decodable part. The only exception I can think of is “of.”
Mapping the word “said”
Your child or students can phoneme-grapheme map sight words just like they map any fully decodable word. In the picture above, I mapped said.
- The word said has three sounds: /s/, /e/, and /d/.
- There are three pom poms on the phoneme-grapheme mapping template – one for each sound.
- In the first and third boxes, I wrote s and d in green because those are completely regular sound-spellings.
- In the middle box, I wrote ai in red to show it is a trickier part.
For more about Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping, check out Droppin Knowledge with Heidi on Instagram. She does a great job of making videos where she maps a ton of high-frequency words.
Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping Examples
When learning how to do phoneme-grapheme mapping, it’s really nice to see a lot of examples. So below you will find examples of mapping these types of words:
- Bossy R
- Vowel Teams
CVC Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping Example
CVC words are the easiest to map. Each sound is spelled by one letter and those sound-letter spellings are regular.
The only exception would be a word like “fox.” X spells two sounds /k/ /s/ so the letter x would bridge two boxes.
Words ending with x are not included in the activity pack, however.
CVCE Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping Example
After CVC words, words that follow the CVCe rule are easy to map.
The main trick is to include the silent e with the final consonant. The silent e doesn’t represent any sounds – it helps the other vowel spell its name. So it joins the consonant to signify that it’s not spelling a sound.
The example picture is poke:
- Say “poke.”
- Tap the sounds. It has three sounds.
- Map the letters that spell the sounds. Include the silent e with the final consonant. So it is mapped p-o-ke.
- Write or spell the word poke.
- Read the word poke.
Blends Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping Example
Blends have two consonants side-by-side. It can be hard for readers and spellers to hear the sounds separately since they blends together. However, they do have two distinct sounds.
Here’s how to map a word with two blends:
- Say “twist.”
- Your child repeats it.
- Place one pom pom for each sound. There are five sounds.
- Map the letter that spells each sound in its own box: t-w-i-s-t.
- Write or spell the word on the line.
- Read the word twist.
Digraph Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping Example
Digraph words are pretty straight-forward as long as your child already knows that two letters spell that one sound.
Here’s how to map the digraph word chest:
- Say “chest.”
- Your learner repeats.
- Your learner counts the sounds in chest – /ch/ /e/ /s/ /t/ – and places a manipulative.
- They map the letters that spell those sounds.
- They write the word chest.
- They read the word chest.
Vowel Team Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping Example
Vowel teams can be some of the hardest words to map because there are so many sound-spellings to learn. So start with the .long vowel teams like ai/ay, ea/ee, or ie/igh.
Here’s an example of mapping a vowel team word:
- Say the word “flight” to your child.
- They repeat the word flight.
- They tap the sounds and place a manipulative for each sound: /f/ /l/ /I/ /t/.
- They can map the letters that spell the sounds /f/, /l/ and /t/.
- You’ll likely need to say, “In this word, igh spells the long i sound.”
- Your child writes the word and reads it.
Bossy R Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping Example
R-controlled vowels are in 10% of words so it’s important for your child to learn them. I only learned about them when I started teaching 2nd grade!
It’s important to have mastered digraphs before jumping into r-controlled vowels.
Here’s how to map the word shirt:
- Say the word “shirt.”
- Your child repeats and taps the three sounds /sh/ /ir/ /t/.
- They map the letters that spell those sounds.
- They write the words.
- They read the word shirt.
Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping Template
You don’t need a template to do phoneme-grapheme mapping. You can just draw boxes on a whiteboard for your child or students and use any counter you already have.
But a lot of teachers and parents need the structure of the template. So you can grab this free black and white phoneme-grapheme mapping template by entering your email in the box below.
This free printable is a gift to email subscribers so you’re agreeing to get my welcome emails and newsletter. You can unsubscribe at any time, but I bet you’ll want to stick around.
Make sure to check you enter your email address correctly – that’s the most common reason why parents don’t get their free printable! And if you’re a teacher, use a personal email, not your school district email.
Phoneme-Grapheme Word Mapping Activity
I was looking for a comprehensive phoneme-grapheme word mapping activity to use with my dyslexic daughter and tutor students. I wanted something that would provide repeated practice and was organized phonics skills in a structured way.
I couldn’t find what I wanted, so I made it.
All the phoneme-grapheme mats included in this pack can work with a pom pom as a manipulative. So you don’t need to go buy a ton of supplies. One bag of pom poms is enough.
The novelty comes in with the 16 themes. They are:
- pine trees
- hot cocoa
- heart-shaped box of chocolates
- pot of gold
- Easter egg
- dinosaur feet
- gumball machine
- bee hives
- lily pads
This pack includes all those phonics skills:
34 Sets Phonics Skills Cards (each set has 12 cards+)
- CVC short a
- CVC short e
- CVC short i
- CVC short o
- CVC short u
- CVC mixed review
- CVCE long a
- CVCE long i
- CVCE long o
- CVCE long u
- CVCE mixed
- Beginning L Blends
- Beginning R Blends
- Beginning S Blends
- Final L Blends
- Final M&N Blends
- Final S&T Blends
- Blends with final ck
- Words with blends and digraphs
- Digraphs mixed (X3 – 36 total cards)
- R-Controlled AR
- R-Controlled ER
- R-Controlled IR
- R-Controlled OR
- R-Controlled UR
- Long a spelled ai/ay
- Long e spelled ea/ee
- long I spelled ie/igh
- Long o splled oa/oe
- Long U spelled ue/iu/oo
Grab the Word Mapping Activity in the Printable Parents Shop or on Teachers Pay Teachers.
This is a different way to teach reading and spelling than you and I learned. But it is the most effective. Grab the free printable template and try mapping sound words today.
grapheme — Wiktionary
See also: Grapheme and graphème
- 1 English
- 1.1 Etymology
- 1.2 Pronunciation
- 1.3 Noun
- 1.3.1 Translations
- 1.4 Further reading
From Ancient Greek γράφω (gráphō, “write”) + -eme. Doublet of -gram.
- (UK) IPA(key): /ˈɡɹæf.iːm/
|Examples (graphemes of the phoneme /f/)
grapheme (plural graphemes)
- A fundamental unit of a writing system, corresponding to (for example) letters in the English alphabet or jamo in Korean Hangeul.
- (Unicode) A sequence of one or more code points that are processed and displayed as a single graphical unit of a writing system.
- Synonym: (formally) grapheme cluster
- Coordinate term: glyph
- (linguistics) In alphabetic writing, the shortest group of letters composing a phoneme.
- [1987, David Caplan, Neurolinguistics and Linguistic Aphasiology: An Introduction, Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 234:
The term for a letter or combination of letters which represents a particular sound is a “grapheme”. Languages like Italian and Serbo-Croatian have very simple “grapheme–phoneme conversion” rules.]
- 2019, Flavia Belpoliti; Encarna Bermejo, Spanish Heritage Learners’ Emerging Literacy: Empirical Research and Classroom Practice, Routledge, →ISBN:
In terms of specific graphemes, Table 2. 5 identifies the most frequent inconsistent phoneme-to-grapheme patterns.
- [1987, David Caplan, Neurolinguistics and Linguistic Aphasiology: An Introduction, Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 234:
fundamental unit of a writing system
- grapheme on Wikipedia. Wikipedia
is… Types and features of graphemes Relations between graphemes and phonemes
The invention of writing is the most important stage development of the language system. Through writing, people are able to convey information in non-verbal ways. Thanks to writing, books, newspapers, movies and the Internet exist, thanks to it you can read this article. The smallest meaningful elements of writing are graphemes.
This term was introduced into linguistics by the Russian linguist I. A. Baudouin de Courtenay.
The branch of science that studies graphemes is called graphics. The words «grapheme» and «graphics» are of Greek origin (γράφω — «I write»). The concept of a grapheme is opposed to a phoneme — the smallest sound unit of speech.
You will be interested in: How to find the sum of an arithmetic progression: formulas and an example of their use
In linguistics, speaking of graphemes, they are enclosed in angle brackets: ⟨а⟩, ⟨К⟩, etc. , by analogy with square brackets for phonetic transcriptions and slashes for phonemes (/a/, /l/).
In alphabetic writing systems, a letter corresponds to a grapheme. But the concept of a grapheme is wider, it includes not only the letter itself, but also various variants of its outline. Uppercase and lowercase, typed in different fonts, handwritten — all these are graphemes. Therefore, the number of graphemes is much greater than the number of letters of the alphabet.
In addition, graphemes include punctuation marks, mathematical symbols, ligatures, etc.
Non-alphabetic writing systems use hieroglyphs instead of letters. They are characteristic of many ancient and modern languages of the world: ancient Egyptian, Yiddish, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, etc. The graphemes of hieroglyphs consist of ideograms — conditional icons or drawings that convey the author’s thought. The peculiarity of the ideograms of some languages is that they can be understood even by people who do not speak this language.
Types of graphemes
There are different types of graphemes in a language.
- Homophonic. These are graphemes that convey the same sound.
- Allographs — different styles of the same letter.
- Auxiliary — graphemes, including punctuation marks and diacritics.
- Ligatures — continuous spellings of graphemes.
- Monographs — graphemes consisting of one letter.
- Grapheme complexes — units of graphics, consisting of two or more graphemes (for example, English ch, sh, augh, etc.).
Relations between graphemes and phonemes
Often in a language, a grapheme represents a phoneme, that is, a sound unit corresponding to a letter in this case (regardless of the writing style). But this correspondence does not always appear.
For example, two or more graphemes can correspond to only one sound. For example, the French combination of letters ch conveys the sound /sh/. In English, the /o/ sound can be conveyed by various combinations of graphemes, one of them is augh (taught, caught).
Does school teach real skills that are indispensable in adult life? So far, traditional education does not always meet modern requirements. But change has already begun. Together with the Skysmart online school, we analyze the most noticeable trends in learning.
The events of the past year have only accelerated the inevitable – the education of the future will be digital. Today’s children will learn all their lives, but school may be their last experience
In the field of organization theory, the idea of »necessary diversity» is used as a key element in the theoretical framework. In relation to the business world at large, Ashby’s cybernetic law states that a company’s degree of relevance must match its degree of internal complexity in order to survive in a competitive market. Cybernetics In the field of cybernetics, Ashby formulated the law of necessary diversity in 1956 year. It can be explained
Uneven economic development or wave fluctuations in general development, especially negative phases, as well as the impact of related economic crises, encourage governments to take measures aimed at reducing general fluctuations in the development of production. Against this background, the main goal of countercyclical regulation is to reduce the harmful effects of general crises and soften economic cycles. Counter-cyclical policy of the state
From the Russian language school curriculum, many people remember that there are words that have opposite meanings. They are called antonyms. The functions that they perform in the text will be discussed in this article. This information may be useful to all people who are interested in the Russian language and wish to improve their knowledge about it. This information will also be useful to those whose work involves the regular writing of a large number of texts. Why
In Chelyabinsk School No. 31, mathematics and physics have always been taught according to a special intensive program. The question is whether all students wanted and could master it. After all, in addition to a special mindset, the guys all the time required great diligence and, most importantly, a desire to engage in exact sciences. The school, in which the 31st Chelyabinsk Lyceum used to be, was opened65 of the last century. It was then that other well-known schools with scientific
opened their doors.
Among all the languages that exist in the world, there is a group whose representatives are, perhaps, one of the most exotic for a Russian person, as well as for most Europeans. To an ear unaccustomed to the sound of such long words, the speech of foreigners may seem ridiculous or even meaningless. This is about incorporating languages. Definition Incorporating languages are those means of communication in which there is no division of speech
Like any other manifestation of human culture, initially speech was formed under the influence of the surrounding world, wildlife. Observing the behavior of animals, noticing the features of character or physiology, the people created original and very accurate concepts. Sneaking is one of the clearest examples of imitation of the most dangerous representatives of the fauna. Philologists will help to understand the nuances. Where is the poison in the words? Today, echidna means
For many years, people have predicted weather conditions, economic and political events, and sports results, and cryptocurrencies have recently added to this extensive list. For predicting versatile events, there are many ways to develop forecasts. For example, intuition, expert opinion, using past results to compare against traditional statistics, and time series forecasting is just one
Many parents find it difficult to help their children learn. You have to re-learn the rules. Over time, they are forgotten. When a child enters the 1st grade, it will be difficult to map out a sentence. At school, the teacher selects simple examples to show how to correctly find a sentence in a text, how to depict it graphically. Members of the proposal: where to start? The first thing to start with is to define what a sentence is. It’s a few words,
The only secondary specialized educational institution in the Republic of Belarus that trains specialists for the electrical industry is the Energy College in Minsk. Its graduates are always in demand. At the end of each waiting for the first job. Training takes place on a paid or budgetary basis. You can get a secondary specialized education at the Minsk Energy College in person or in absentia. Specialties Main directions of study
What does grapheme mean — Meanings of words
grapheme in the crossword dictionary
- Unit of written speech
- Term in literature, linguistics
- Minimum unit of written speech
- The minimum unit of written speech corresponding to a phoneme in oral speech
Encyclopedic Dictionary, 1998
the minimum unit of written speech corresponding to a phoneme (its variant or sequence of phonemes) in oral speech. A letter, a combination of letters, a hieroglyph or part of it can act as a grapheme.
Great Soviet Encyclopedia
(from the Greek grapho ≈ I write), the smallest meaningful unit of written speech corresponding to a phoneme in oral speech, for example, “a”, “b”, etc. The gramophone system of a certain script forms the alphabet of this script. It is necessary to distinguish from G. a letter (letter) corresponding to the sound of speech (for example, A, a, a, etc.), and a graphic combination (i.e., a set of letters) that is regularly used in this writing to denote one or another phonemes (for example, ch ≈ «sh» in French, «x» in German, «h» in English writing). The term «G.» introduced at 1912 J. A. Baudouin de Courtenay.
Lit.: Baudouin de Courtenay I. A., On the relation of Russian writing to the Russian language, St. Petersburg, 1912; Volotskaya Z. M., Moloshnaya T. N., Nikolaeva T. M., Experience in describing the Russian language in its written form, M., 1964.
A. G. Shitsgal.
Grapheme is a writing unit (in the alphabet — a letter, in non-alphabetic writing systems — a syllabic sign, a hieroglyph, an ideogram, and others).
The grapheme is uniquely distinguishable from any other unit of the same script.
The same grapheme can take various specific forms (allographs, glyphs, styles), but must retain some construction scheme, the “skeleton” of a letter or sign, discretely distinguishing it from other letters of a given script, regardless of the typeface, individual handwriting and others.
With an anomaly in the development of speech, or simply with the so-called «illegible handwriting», there may be a mixture of graphemes (for example, uppercase α and o , m and w , d and y ).
The concept was introduced in 1912 by J. A. Baudouin de Courtenay.
Examples of the use of the word grapheme in the literature.
The modern city with its geometric grid falls on the intricacies of historical labyrinths, as if forcing them, creating many microfields of tension where graphemes do not coincide, where continuously multiplying differences are read between them.
Valjean’s movement between the letters of someone else’s text is in many ways analogous to this non-stop sliding from grapheme to grapheme, which, instead of making the text readable, only multiply diagrams of violence.
Changed handwriting — still the handwriting of the given body, even the distortion of the grapheme testifies to the continued identity.
New graphemes appear in Low German under the influence of English writing.
But the monogram has another important property, it combines graphemes in such a way that they intertwine in a pattern in which they lose their readability.