Times tables: 10 things every parent needs to know
If you’re a KS2 parent, chances are you’ll spend more time than you ever thought possible looking for ways to help your child learn their times tables. Here are the ten things you should know before you get started.
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1. Times tables are a brilliant brain-training exercise for primary-schoolers. Good times-tables knowledge is vital for quick mental maths calculations and problem solving; for example, if a child knows that 6 x 3 = 18 they will be able to work out that 6 x 30 = 180 or 60 x 3 = 180 almost instantly.
2. Times tables are often taught separately from other areas of maths to begin with, but they’re the building blocks for many of the topics children learn in KS2, such as division, long multiplication, fractions and percentages.
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3. Your child needs to know all their times tables (up to the 12 times table) by the end of Year 4 (and they’ll be tested on their knowledge in the Year 4 Multiplication Tables Check). In Years 5 and 6 they will be moving onto much more complicated concepts, such as multiplying and dividing using four-digit numbers, plus problem-solving involving fractions and percentages. It is therefore vital that they enter Year 5 really confident in all their times tables.
4. Alongside learning their times tables, it is vital that children learn the division facts for each times table (for example: division facts for the 3 x table are: 6 ÷ 3 = 2, 9 ÷ 3 = 3, 12 ÷ 4 = 3). Make sure you test them on these until they are really confident with them. It will put down a solid foundation for dividing larger numbers later in KS2.
5. Quick recall of multiplication tables really benefits from constant repetition (do you remember chanting times tables in class when you were in primary school?). Get into the habit of practising times tables with your child whenever the opportunity presents itself, but only do it in short bursts (when you’re stuck in a traffic jam, say, or washing their hair in the bath).
6. Some children like to learn by rote; for others it doesn’t work at all. To support their learning, work out what will make times tables stick in your child’s mind, whether that’s singing them, putting them into practice with puzzles, playing games with them or writing them out.
7. How your child learns times tables at school will be very influenced by their teacher’s individual style. Some teachers choose very traditional methods, others prefer to play games and set practical challenges to help children learn. Ask your child’s teacher for tips and tricks to help with times tables learning.
8. Your child may protest that they’re useless, but we rely on times tables constantly in everyday life. If your child has to work out how much storage they have left on their iPad, how many trading card packets they can buy with their pocket money or how many biscuits each person gets when a packet is being divvied up, they’ll use their times tables. Remind them of all the everyday ways they can put their skills to use – for example, if you go to a football match or the cinema, ask your child to count the number of seats along a row and then the number of rows and then multiply them to work out how many people are in the venue.
9. Knowing times tables makes learning easier in secondary school and beyond. Good multiplication skills are a great help when starting to learn algebra, as well as chemistry, physics, biology and ICT, all of which depend heavily on maths knowledge.
10. According to a study published by Ofsted, the schools watchdog, many primary schools fail to teach times tables properly. “Lack of fluency with multiplication tables is a significant impediment to fluency with multiplication and division,” the report states. “Many low-attaining secondary pupils struggle with instant recall of tables.”
How children learn times tables in primary school
Year 1 times tables learning
Children are taught the simplest form of multiplication, counting up in 2s, 5s and 10s.
Year 2 times tables learning
Children are formally introduced to multiplication, related division facts and repeated addition for the numbers 2, 5 and 10.
Year 3 times tables learning
A crucial year for times tables learning. Children are expected to learn multiplication facts for the 3, 4 and 8 times tables and to use practical and written methods to multiply and divide two-digit numbers (for example, 15 x 4).
Year 4 times tables learning
A ‘completing’ year for all multiplication facts up to 12 x 12. Children also continue to develop their skills in multiplication of two-digit numbers by a one-digit number, using harder combinations of numbers.They will also learn to multiply a three-digit number by a one-digit number.
Year 5 and Year 6 times tables learning
Children will be expected to be really confident in all their times tables (up to the 12 times table) by the start of Year 5. During Years 5 and 6 they will become confident in multiplying larger numbers (four-digits by two-digits, for example).
Times tables learning: support for parents
To help your child with their times tables knowledge, browse through our 60+ times tables worksheets, solve some times tables puzzles and celebrate your child’s achievement by printing out some certificates.
Our information articles offer advice and tips to help your child with specific times tables:
- Tips and tricks for learning the 2 times table
- Learning the 3 times table: expert advice
- The 4 times table step by step
- The «easy» times tables: 5s, 10, 11s and 12s
- The hardest multiplication table to learn: the 7 times table
- The «tricky» times tables: 6s, 8s and 9s
TheSchoolRun subscribers also have access to mock Multiplication Tables Checks to help practice times tables recall in the run-up to the Y4 times tables assessment.
More like this
Times Tables Learning Journey
Teachers’ tricks for learning times tables
Times tables: the best ways to learn
Times Tables Funpack
How rote learning benefits your primary school child
The Year 4 Multiplication Tables Check (MTC) explained
Top times tables games
Times tables practice book
8 Effective Tips for Teaching Times Tables
It’s the age-old question parents have asked since the dawn of time(s tables): “Are there any ways of making learning times tables fun?” Mastering times tables is a vital skill that children must learn before they enter secondary school and thus it is important that parents try to find fun ways to teach times tables. There are so many options out there though, from an online maths tutor like Maths-Whizz, to explainer videos and downloadable worksheets. With that in mind, here are Whizz Education’s eight highly effective tips on how to teach times tables the easy way.
1. Hang up a times table sheet
This is an old technique but it’s very effective. The first step involves downloading Whizz Education’s handy times table sheet. Once that’s done, go through it with your child, filling in each individual box together. Next step is to hang the completed chart up in a place where your child will see it regularly (e.g. their bedroom door, the fridge door, the cupboard next to the computer). Finally set a regular time for both you and your child to sit down and have a casual, no pressure run through a particular set of times tables, perhaps just before dinner. Remember, the more often they see and practice their times tables, the more likely they are to learn them.
2. Make sure they can walk before they can run
There is some debate surrounding the best order in which to teach the times tables. However, it is generally agreed that it is preferable to start with 2, 5 and 10, as the patterns within them are easier for children to grasp. Children are introduced to counting in multiples of 2, 5 and 10 first. Once secure and accurate with this rote recall, the easier it is to turn it into times table and see the structure and patterns that are present. Two times table involves doubling and using fingers initially can help children see and feel the symmetry of the doubling concept. In the 2 and 10 times tables the numbers are all even. In fact, any number multiplied by an even number will be even. Saying the 10 times tables helps children to see the patterns “…6 tens are 60, 7 tens are 70…”. With the 10 times table all the numbers end in 0 and in the 5 times table all the numbers end in 5 or 0. Once they have mastered the 2, 5 and 10 times tables, children should find it easier to move on to 4 and 8.
3. Teach your kids some tricks
One of the great things about maths is that it’s full of tips and tricks – and times tables are no different. Our favourite trick involves using your fingers to figure out nine times tables. Start by spreading all 10 fingers in front of you. To figure out 9×1, put your left pinky down. What are you left with? 9 fingers! For 9×2 put your left ring-finger down. What are you left with? 1 finger and a gap followed by 8 fingers or 18. This trick works up to 9×9 (8 and 1 or 81). That said, when teaching children these tricks, encourage them to ask why these techniques work and the mathematical reasoning behind them.
4. Listen to some fun songs
What’s a great way to get information stuck in someone’s head? Yep, that’s right! Catchy music! We recommend checking out videos made by Youtuber, Mr.DeMaio, an American elementary school teacher who uses clever parodies of pop songs to teach kids their times tables. Our favourite is definitely his cover of Bruno Mars and Mark Ronson’s song Uptown Funk which aims to teach children their three times tables.
5. Stage a multiplication war
Recently we discussed five fun board games that can help teach kids maths. Now we’ve found a card game that makes learning times tables fun. The game is simple, two players draw a card from a deck. They then flip their cards over and the first person to correctly guess the total of the two cards multiplied together gets to put the cards in their winning pile. For example, if a 3 of hearts and a 7 of diamonds are flipped over, the first person who says 21 gets to keep the two cards. The person with the most cards in their winning pile at the end of the game wins.
6. Draw a Waldorf multiplication flower
One for the creative kids. Children start this activity by drawing the centre of the flower, in which they write a number between 2 and 12. They then draw 12 petals around the centre, with each petal containing the numbers 1 through 12. The last step is to draw another set of 12 petals which contain the centre number multiplied by each petal in the inner circle.
7. Quiz them regularly, but not incessantly
Once you think your child is getting the hang of their times tables, it’s time to put them to the test. It’s best to do this is when there’s nothing else really going on, like while you’re walking them to school or while you’re waiting for a bus. Also, try to normalise these drills by allocating a specific time of the week to quiz them, rather than springing it on them randomly, that way the drills aren’t too stressful.
8. Reward their efforts
When encouraging children to pursue something important, like timetables, there’s no harm in heightening their enthusiasm with a little reward. Remember that you shouldn’t just reward your child for getting answers right, though. Don’t be afraid to give them a treat if you can see they’ve been trying hard but haven’t quite mastered their times tables yet. This encourages persistence. Also, remember not to judge them if they get the answers wrong, learning should always be an enjoyable experience!
And there you have it, folks! We hope you have enjoyed our times tables tips! Have you got any fun activities to help with learning times tables? Then head over to our Facebook or Twitter page and share them with us. We’d love to hear them.
Is study included in seniority in 2023 (nuances)?
Is study included in the length of service? This question often arises among those who received special professional education. Let’s consider whether study is included in the length of service — the one that is taken into account for pensions.
Is study included in the seniority for pension?
Since 2002, with the entry into force of the law of the Russian Federation “On labor pensions in the Russian Federation” dated December 17, 2001 No. 173-FZ (the current version of the regulatory act is dated December 08, 2020), the previously used concept of “work experience” was replaced by the concept of “insurance experience” «. Studies were not included in the number of periods forming the insurance period (Articles 10 and 11 No. 173-FZ).
The new law of the Russian Federation «On insurance pensions» dated December 28, 2013 No. 400-FZ (actual version — December 28, 2022), which began its operation in 2015, increased the list of periods to be taken into account in the insurance period (Art. 11-12 Law No. 400-FZ), but not in connection with studies. For your information, from the day it begins to operate, the Federal Law of the Russian Federation No. 173 is no longer applied.
Thus, according to the named normative legal acts, the period of study is not included in the length of service required to establish a pension.
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There are exceptions to this rule — these are cadets of universities of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Russian Ministry of Defense.
Enrollment in these educational organizations is actually an admission to the service with the signing of contracts (part 2 of article 17, article 22 of the federal law of November 30, 2011 No. 342-FZ «On service in the internal affairs bodies of the Russian Federation and amendments to certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation”, paragraph 2 of article 35 of the federal law of March 28, 1998 No. 53-FZ “On military duty and military service”, order of the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation of April 7, 2015 No. 185).
See K+ for more information on inclusion in work experience. Trial access is free.
However, there is one feature according to which, when calculating the insurance period for the purpose of calculating the amount of the insurance pension, periods of work or other activities carried out before the entry into force of Law No. 400-FZ may be included in the insurance period, provided that at the time of such activity they were taken into account when calculating the length of service in accordance with the legislation in force at that time (part 8 of article 13 of law No. 400-FZ). For example, the Regulations on the procedure for the appointment and payment of state pensions, approved by the Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of 08/03/1972 No. 590 (now inactive), contained the following norm: studies in higher educational institutions, secondary specialized educational institutions (technical schools, pedagogical and medical schools and other institutions), party schools, Soviet party schools, schools of the trade union movement, and workers’ faculties are counted in the total work experience; stay in graduate school, doctoral studies and clinical residency (clause 109 of resolution No. 590). Accordingly, persons who studied during the period of this decision may take this length of service into account when calculating the length of service for calculating a pension.
There are legal grounds for early retirement.
In simple terms, those who studied before 2002 at a university, academy, university, graduate school, doctoral studies, college, technical school and advanced training courses, the period of study is counted in the total length of service. But subsequent education, after 2002, according to the current legislation, is no longer taken into account in the length of service for the appointment of a pension. These rules are current and apply for 2023.
Find out more about the appointment of a pension in the materials “What will be the pension if there is no work experience” and “Retirement table for 2023 900 23 and beyond” .
When can I take into account my studies at the institute in 2023?
Thus, until 2002, when other legislation was in force, the calculation of pensions was carried out according to completely different principles and, in particular, to a large extent depended on the total length of service. Over time, a formula has been developed to calculate the accumulated pension capital, which depends on the estimated pension amount, in order to adjust the pension rights earned before 2002. And the calculation of the size of the pension includes a coefficient that takes into account the length of service. However, when determining the estimated amount of the pension, two formulas are used, and the set of periods that form the length of service for calculation is taken for them differently. And only one of the calculations takes into account the periods of professional training for further work (training in the educational institutions listed above).
How to calculate the length of service for a pension? How to calculate the length of service for early retirement? Sign up for a free trial access to «ConsultantPlus» and get an expert’s answer to these questions. In the expert consultation, you will also find a list of documents that can confirm the experience.
The right to choose the method of calculation, and, consequently, the accounting (or non-accounting) in the experience of the period of study, is left to the future pensioner. But in reality, this choice is made by the Social Fund of Russia, which is legally obliged to select the most beneficial option for calculating pensions for a pensioner (clauses 48–58 of the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of 02.10.2014 No. 1015). At the same time, the option of accounting for length of service with the inclusion of periods of study, as a rule, turns out to be less profitable for calculating a pension.
Read more about the formation of a single Social Fund, which united the PFR and the Social Insurance Fund, in the thematic publication posted in the ConsultantPlus system. Get a trial access to it for free.
On March 18, 2021, Decree of the Government of Russia dated March 4, 2021 No. 322 came into force. This legal act introduced changes to the procedure for assigning early retirement benefits (Decree No. 665 dated July 16, 2014). In accordance with the innovations, when calculating the periods for establishing an early preferential pension, the time of vocational training, as well as receiving additional vocational education, is taken into account.
This article , as well as the pension calculator on the State Services portal will help you try to calculate your pension yourself.
According to the current legislation on pensions, periods of study are not taken into account in the length of service for calculating a pension. But they can be taken into account in the experience if the training was completed before 2002, according to one of the existing calculation options. Periods of vocational training and additional vocational education are now included in the length of service when establishing an early pension.
Will studies be included in the total work experience?
Will studies be included in the total work experience?
If you directly answer the question, then according to the current legislation, study will not be included in the length of service. If you studied before 2002, then your studies are taken into account.
Under the insurance experience is meant the period in which pension accruals were made for citizens. The main significance lies in the fact that it affects the formation of pensions. Today, the minimum experience is 15 years.
Pension legislation is constantly being modified. According to the law that was in force earlier, the terms of training were taken into account when assigning a pension, but now this does not happen. That is why whether studying at the university is included in the length of service depends on the period in which the citizen studied.
Is study taken into account when calculating the total length of service
Until 1992, the Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 590 was in force. secondary specialized educational institutions. This legislation was in effect until 2002.
The new Federal Law removed the possibility to take studies into account when calculating seniority. In accordance with the articles of this law, the time of study is no longer considered when assigning a pension. In addition, the very concept of seniority has been changed. In today’s legislation, the wording «insurance experience» is used.
In 2015 the law changed again. The amendments adopted in 2013 came into force. They operate today. These innovations increased the number of periods that are taken into account in labor output, but the period for receiving educational services was not taken into account in the law.
In accordance with modern legislation, the following periods are taken into account in the insurance output:
- military service;
- receiving disability or unemployment benefits;
- caring for a small child who is under one and a half years old;
- living with family abroad;
- living with a spouse who is in the military in a locality where there is no way to find work;
- detention if not justified;
- caring for a citizen who has a disability or has reached the age of more than 80 years.
Study is included in the length of service only on the condition that the citizen was trained in the period before 2002, that is, before the amendments to the basic law.
Education and work experience
If we talk about studying at a technical school, then everything depends on the period of education in the institution in question. The period up to 2002 is included in the length of service. If a citizen graduated later, the period is not included in the length of service.
In the Soviet Union, studying at a university was included in the length of service, but in Russia, education is not included in the insurance experience. However, nothing prevents a student from studying part-time and working in his spare time as an individual entrepreneur or under an employment contract. In such a situation, deductions for him will be paid or he will make them personally.
Postgraduate education is also not taken into account, contrary to how it was in Soviet times. However, if we take an internship, then it means specialization in a medical institution after receiving the appropriate education. Interns receive a salary, so the period is counted in the insurance output.
Thus, education in educational institutions will be counted in the insurance experience only for those citizens who studied in the period before 2002. Today it is impossible to receive insurance earnings for study.
If the student is employed and pays contributions personally
When assigning a pension, periods of any work activity in which contributions were deducted are always taken into account. If the student works under an employment contract or as an individual entrepreneur, and also pays all pension contributions, then this period will be included in the length of service. However, a student, master or graduate student must be officially employed. Speaking directly, in this situation, it is not the period of education itself that is taken into account, but labor activity at a given time.
Studying at a departmental university
Studying can be included in the length of service for receiving pension payments in the internal affairs bodies for up to 5 years. This law applies to employees who went to the service before the beginning of 2012. In addition, education must be completed. In accordance with Russian law, admission to the universities of the Ministry of Defense or the Ministry of Internal Affairs is considered upon enrollment in the service with the signing of a contract.
Military personnel should also be mentioned separately. If a military man is studying at a civilian university, then there is a record of seniority. In this case, the type of educational institution does not matter. The length of service is taken into account according to a certain rule: the law equates two months of training to one month of service.
Based on all the above information, modern Russian legislation does not allow for the period of study to be counted as insurance experience, and therefore is not taken into account by the Pension Fund of the Russian Federation.