Comparing Lengths as Longest, Shortest and Tallest
Posted on by Maths With Mum
Comparing Lengths as Longest, Shortest and Tallest
- The length of an object is its biggest distance from one end to the other.
- We can compare the length of two objects by lining them up at one end.
- We can line the start of the snake up with the start of the tortoise.
- The distance from one end of the snake to the other is bigger than the distance from one end of the tortoise to the other.
- We say that the snake is long compared to the tortoise.
- We say that the tortoise is short compared to the snake.
- The height of an object is measured vertically, directly from the ground upwards.
- The height of an object is its length upwards.
- The tree is longer than the flower but with height we use the word tall.
- Compared to the flower, the tree is tall.
- The flower is short compared to the tree.
Length is the largest distance from one side of an object to the other.
We use the words short and long to describe length but the words short and tall to describe height.
- Something is the shortest if it is described as short compared to everything else.
- Something is the longest if it is described as long compared to everything else.
- The whale is longer than all of the other animals and so the whale is the longest.
- The mouse is shorter than all of the other animals and so the mouse is the shortest.
Comparing Lengths and Heights Worksheet
Length is the biggest distance from one end of an object to the other.
In this lesson we are comparing objects to see which is the longest and shortest.
In the first example below, we have a tortoise and a snake.
When teaching comparing length, it can help to make sure that the two objects are lined up to start at the same place. This makes it much easier to visualise and understand this concept if it is new.
The snake’s length is bigger than the tortoise’s length since it is bigger from one end to the other.
We say that the snake is long compared to the tortoise. Or we say that the snake is longer.
We say that the tortoise is short compared to the snake.
We can say that the tortoise is shorter than the snake.
Remember that both long and short are comparative words. Whilst the snake is long compared to the tortoise, the snake can still be short compared to something longer.
Here is an example of comparing the lengths of three animals.
Remember that to compare their lengths, it is easiest to line the objects up first.
We can see that the horse is long compared to both the dog and the tortoise.
If something is longer than everything else, we say it is the longest.
The horse is the longest animal.
If something is shorter than everything else, we say it is the shortest.
The tortoise is the shortest animal.
The concept of height is very similar to length. Height is the length of an object upwards, its total distance from the ground up.
In the example of comparing heights below, we have a tree and a flower.
Just like with length, the object with the smallest distance is called short.
The flower has a smaller height compared to the tree and so it is short.
The tree is long compared to the flower, however we use the word tall instead of long when talking about height.
In the example below, we have 5 plants that we will compare the heights of.
This plant is shorter than all of the others and so, it is the shortest.
The stalk on the right is taller than all of the other plants and so it is the tallest.
In the example problem below, we are asked to find the longest and shortest animals.
The whale is long compared to every other animal and so, it is the longest.
The mouse is short compared to every other animal and so, it is the shortest.
In the example below, we are comparing heights to find the shortest and tallest plants.
The tree on the left is taller than all of the other plants and so it is the tallest.
The plant on the right is short compared to every other plant and so, it is the shortest.
Now try our lesson on Measuring Centimetres Using a Ruler where we learn how to use a ruler to measure the length of objects.
Shortest & Longest Day of the Year
There are two solstices every year: one in June and one in December. The June solstice marks the longest day north of the equator and the shortest day in the south.
Position of Earth in relation to the Sun during the June solstice.
Sun Reaches Most Northerly Point
The June solstice is the moment the Sun is directly above the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere. This is the northernmost latitude it reaches during the year. After the solstice, it begins moving south again.
11 facts about the June solstice
Solstice Local Time & Date
In Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany: Wednesday, 21 June 2023, 16:57 CEST (Change location)
This corresponds to Wednesday, 21 June 2023, 14:57 UTC.
- Sun rise/set and day length around this solstice
- Solstice countdown
- Local times for this solstice worldwide
- Solstice Day and Night Map
Longest Day in the North
Since the Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun in June, it receives more sunlight during the course of a day. The North Pole’s tilt toward the Sun is greatest at the solstice, so this event marks the longest day of the year north of the equator.
This effect is greatest in locations that are farther away from the equator. In tropical areas, the longest day is just a little longer than 12 hours; in the temperate zone, it is significantly longer; and places within the Arctic Circle experience Midnight Sun or polar day, when the Sun does not set at night.
Shortest Day in the South
Conversely, the day of the June solstice is the shortest day of the year in the Southern Hemisphere. Here, too, the effect is greater the farther a location is away from the equator.
Places within the Antarctic Circle experience polar night, when the Sun does not rise at all.
Sun times at the South Pole in June
Why Is It Called a “Solstice?”
During a year, the subsolar point—the spot on the Earth’s surface directly beneath the Sun—slowly moves along a north-south axis. Having reached its southernmost point at the December solstice, it stops and starts moving northward until it crosses the equator on the day of the March equinox. At the June solstice, which marks the northernmost point of its journey, it stops again to start its journey back toward the south.
This is how the solstices got their name: the term comes from the Latin words sol and sistere, meaning “Sun” and “to stand still”.
Initially, the naming arose from observations of how the Sun’s apparent path across the sky changes slightly from one day to the next, which is caused by the same process as the subsolar point’s movement described above.
In the months leading up to the June solstice, the position of sunrise and sunset creeps northward. On the day of the solstice, it reaches its northernmost point. After that, the daily path of the Sun across the sky begins to creep southward again.
Earth: The living planet
The Sun: Our home star
Why Does the Sun Move North and South?
The subsolar point moves north and south during the year because the Earth’s axis is tilted at an angle of about 23.4° in relation to the ecliptic, an imaginary plane created by Earth’s path around the Sun. In June, the Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun, and the subsolar point is north of the equator. As the Earth travels toward the opposite side of its orbit, which it reaches in December, the Southern Hemisphere gradually receives more sunlight, and the subsolar point travels south.
How do seasons work?
Earth is tilted as it orbits the Sun, which is why equinoxes and solstices happen.
The Solstices and the Seasons
The June solstice marks the start of summer in the Northern Hemisphere and the start of winter in the Southern Hemisphere, according to one definition.
Equinox and solstice dates—years 1-2149
Sunrise and Sunset Times Lag Behind
The longest day of the year is commonly associated with the earliest sunrise and latest sunset of the year. However, in most locations, the earliest sunrise happens a few days before the solstice, while the latest sunset occurs some days after it. Find out why
The June Solstice in the Calendar
Even though most people consider June 21 as the date of the June solstice, it can happen anytime between June 20 and June 22, depending on the time zone. June 22 solstices are rare—the last June 22 solstice took place in 1975, and there won’t be another one until 2203.
Note: All dates refer to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Local dates may vary depending on the time zone.
Why Does the Date Vary?
The date of the equinoxes and solstices varies because a year in our calendar does not exactly match the length of the tropical year—the time it takes the Earth to complete an orbit around the Sun.
Today’s Gregorian calendar has 365 days in a common year and 366 days in a leap year. However, our planet takes about 365.242199 days to orbit the Sun. This means that the timing of the equinoxes and solstices slowly drifts apart from the Gregorian calendar, and the solstice happens about 6 hours later each year. Eventually, the accumulated lag becomes so large that it falls on the following date.
To realign the calendar with the tropical year, a leap day is introduced (nearly) every four years. When this happens, the equinox and solstice dates shift back to the earlier date again.
Other factors influencing the timing of the equinoxes and solstices include variations in the length of a tropical year and in the orbital and daily rotational motion of the Earth, such as the “wobble” in the Earth’s axis (precession).
Topics: Astronomy, Sun, Seasons, Calendar, Solstice, Earth
summer solstice — article — Corporation Russian textbook (Drofa-Ventana publishing house)
From dawn to dusk
This astronomical phenomenon was called the solstice due to the fact that for several hours the star seems to freeze in the sky, stops in place. You can watch how at noon the Sun «hangs» high in the sky and will not fall for a long time. In 24 hours, it will slowly move along a circular path — so large that it will seem to us, the inhabitants of the Earth, that the Sun is standing at one point. Therefore, the day will last so long — a little more than 17 and a half hours, and the night will become the shortest of the year.
The sun «stops» twice a year: on June 20 or 21 and on December 21 or 22. But in winter, the opposite is true: the night lasts longer, and the daylight hours are very short. The December Sun will move along the ecliptic and on the day X will reach the farthest southern point of the celestial equator, then astronomical winter will come in the Northern Hemisphere.
In Rus’, the solstice was called «solstice»: from the word «to return». And indeed, it seems to the inhabitants of the Earth that the Sun is rotating (but we have known for a long time that it is the Earth that rotates around its own axis and around the Sun). And yet, there was logic in the name: after all, the distance from the horizon to the brightest celestial body first increases, and then decreases.
In June, the Sun reaches the highest point of the celestial sphere, and astronomical summer begins in the Northern Hemisphere of the Earth. For the Southern Hemisphere, this time will mean the onset of winter. After June 21, the Sun will gradually begin to decline, and the day will shorten. We will surely notice that by the end of August, the evening twilight will come faster, and the night sky will become richly dark, so that you can look at the stars.
White nights and polar day
While outside the window is June, in St. Petersburg, at a latitude almost equal to 60 degrees, the time of white nights comes. And further north — starting from latitude 66 — you can also observe the polar day. Its duration is different, but the essence of the phenomenon is one: while the Earth rotates around its axis, part of the Northern Hemisphere is constantly on the bright side. The sun does not set, but goes around an arc along the horizon line.
White nights of St. Petersburg
The polar day is observed by residents of some cities in Iceland, Norway and Sweden. This phenomenon has not bypassed the territory of our country either. In Apatity, Verkhoyansk, Vorkuta, Norilsk, Kirovsk, Murmansk, Novy Urengoy, Salekhard, Severomorsk, Tiksi and other settlements of Russia beyond the Arctic Circle, the polar day comes in summer.
Polar day in Naryan-Mar, June 21, 2017. Source: wikipedia.org
Rites and holidays of the peoples of the world
In the pre-Christian calendar, the peoples of the north, the Baltics and Slavs celebrated the day of the summer solstice as a holiday — this period was considered an important phase for starting the countdown of a new cycle of the year.
Later, the Slavic holiday of the summer solstice, which began to be celebrated on July 7, began to be called the Nativity of John the Baptist. Remember, by the way, the Nativity of Christ, which Orthodox Christians celebrate on January 7th. These two dates are close to the solstice — winter and summer.
Among the Eastern and Western Slavs, the night of Ivan Kupala was full of rituals: people lit fires and jumped over them, swam in the rivers, performed fortune-telling. Girls floated Kupala flower wreaths across the water surface — symbols of girlhood. And young people believed in all sorts of fables: according to legend, just on the night of the summer solstice, a fern blossomed. The one who discovers it will certainly have a wonderful transformation and incredible opportunities.
But for the Yakuts and Evens, the day of the summer solstice is also the national New Year. After a long winter, the peoples celebrate the onset of heat and meet the summer with ancient rituals: they stand in a round dance and compete in athletic exercises. The main symbol of the holiday is the ritual pole serge (“tethering post” in literal translation), which is usually installed near the dwelling of each family as a sign that this place has its own owner.
Serge. Source: wikipedia.org
The holiday of the summer solstice is still celebrated by those who honor centuries-old traditions. And not only in our country. In Lithuania, for example, Jonines is celebrated, in Latvia — Ligo, in Estonia — Janov’s Day. The Finns traditionally celebrate Juhannus, the Danes celebrate the feast of St. Hans. And some Englishmen — adherents of the Celtic culture — conduct ritual ceremonies.
how the world celebrates the shortest day of the year
Solstice is the moment when the Sun passes through the points of the ecliptic farthest from the celestial equator (the trajectory of a star across the sky during the year). It happens in summer and winter: the longest and shortest day comes.
This year the winter solstice will fall at 00:48 Moscow time on December 22nd. From this moment begins the astronomical winter. The day will lengthen until June 21, 2023, when the summer solstice arrives.
The shortest day
During the winter solstice, the height of the sun above the horizon is minimal, and the summer solstice is at its maximum. Before and after the solstice, the height of the star above the horizon remains almost unchanged. Fading gave the name to this astronomical phenomenon.
Scientists call the winter solstice the beginning of astronomical winter, and the summer solstice — the beginning of astronomical summer. Residents of the Northern Hemisphere observe this phenomenon in December and July, in the Southern Hemisphere it is vice versa.
In the Northern Hemisphere, the winter solstice occurs on December 21 or 22, depending on whether it was a leap year or not. On days close to the solstice, beyond the Arctic Circle (66.5 degrees north latitude), the Sun does not rise above the horizon at all and the polar night sets in.
Day before Christmas
The mythology associated with the Sun is called Solar. In the early stages of human history, it played an important role. For most peoples, the winter solstice meant the rebirth of the power of the Sun.
In ancient Rome at this time they celebrated the harvest festival — Saturnalia (December 17-23). The people arranged a celebration in honor of the god Saturn, who was the patron of agriculture. These were great feasts, and the slaves for a time became equal to the masters. When Christianity spread in the 4th century, December 25, close to the winter solstice, became the feast of the Nativity of Christ. This date was legalized by the Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church in the city of Ephesus in 431.
After the introduction of the Gregorian calendar by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582, December 25 changed to January 7. Christmas was still celebrated on December 25, but in a new style. Today in December, it is celebrated by Catholics, Protestants and other Christians living according to the Gregorian calendar. The Orthodox, including the Russian Orthodox Church, celebrate Christmas on January 7, that is, December 25 according to the old style.
In China, between December 21 and 23, Dongzhi, or «Winter’s Limit», is celebrated. According to a long tradition of peasants, the year is divided into 24 agricultural seasons — nunli, each is calculated according to the position of the Sun. Dongzhi is the 22nd, it is preceded by the period of «Great Snows», and is replaced by «Little Colds». On this day, it is customary to postpone current affairs and devote time to the family.
In Sweden and other Nordic countries, December 13th is Saint Lucy’s Day, a martyr from Syracuse, blinded and killed for her faith in Christ.