Puddy training: Potty training: How to get the job done

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Toilet Training (for Parents) — Nemours KidsHealth

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Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD

When Are Kids Ready to Toilet Train?

Many parents are unsure about when to start toilet training or «potty training.» Not all kids are ready at the same age, so it’s important to watch your child for signs of readiness, such as stopping an activity for a few seconds or clutching his or her diaper.

Instead of using age, look for signs that your child may be ready to start heading for the potty, such as being able to:

  • follow simple instructions
  • understand and use words about using the potty
  • make the connection between the urge to pee or poop and using the potty
  • keep a diaper dry for 2 hours or more
  • get to the potty, sit on it for enough time, and then get off the potty
  • pull down diapers, disposable training pants, or underpants
  • show an interest in using the potty or wearing underpants

Most children begin to show these signs when they’re between 18 and 24 months old, though some may not be ready until later than that. And boys often start later and take longer to learn to use the potty than girls.

There are some times when you may want to put off starting toilet training, such as:

  • when traveling
  • around the birth of a sibling
  • changing from the crib to the bed
  • moving to a new house
  • when your child is sick (especially if diarrhea is a factor)

How Long Does Toilet Training Take?

Teaching a toddler to use the potty isn’t an overnight task. It often takes between 3 and 6 months, but can take more or less time for some children. If you start too soon, the process tends to take longer. And it can take months to even years to master staying dry at night.

Potty Types

The two basic potty options are:

  • a standalone, toddler-size potty chair with a bowl that can be emptied into the toilet
  • a toddler-size seat that can be placed on top of a toilet seat that will let your child feel more secure and not fear falling in. If you choose this, get a stepping stool so your child can reach the seat comfortably and feel supported while having a bowel movement.

It’s usually best for boys to first learn to use the toilet sitting down before learning to pee standing up. For boys who feel awkward — or scared — about standing on a stool to pee in the toilet, a potty chair may be a better option.

You may want to get a training potty or seat for every bathroom in your house. You may even want to keep a potty in the trunk of your car for emergencies. When traveling long distances, be sure to take a potty seat with you and stop every 1 to 2 hours. Otherwise, it can take too long to find a restroom.

About Training Pants

Disposable training pants are a helpful step between diapers and underwear. Because kids’ nighttime bladder and bowel control often lags behind their daytime control, some parents like using training pants at night. Others prefer that their child use training pants when they’re out and about. Once the training pants remain dry for a few days, kids can make the switch to wearing underwear.

But some people think that disposable training pants might make kids think it’s OK to use them like diapers, thus slowing the toilet-teaching process.

Ask your doctor if your child would benefit from using disposable training pants as a transitional step.

Tips for Toilet Training

Even before your child is ready to try the potty, you can prepare your little one by teaching about the process:

  • Use words to express the act of using the toilet («pee,» «poop,» and «potty»).
  • Ask your child to let you know when a diaper is wet or soiled.
  • Identify behaviors («Are you going poop?») so that your child can learn to recognize the urge to pee and poop.
  • Get a potty chair your child can practice sitting on. At first, your child can sit on it wearing clothes or a diaper. When ready, your child can go bare-bottomed.

If you’ve decided that your child is ready to start learning how to use the potty, these tips may help:

  • Set aside some time to devote to the potty-training process.
  • Don’t make your child sit on the toilet against his or her will.
  • Show your child how you sit on the toilet and explain what you’re doing (because your child learns by watching you). You also can have your child sit on the potty seat and watch while you (or a sibling) use the toilet.
  • Establish a routine. For example, you may want to begin by having your child sit on the potty after waking with a dry diaper, or 45 minutes to an hour after drinking lots of liquids. Only put your child on the potty for a few minutes a couple of times a day, and let your child get up if he or she wants to.
  • Have your child sit on the potty within 15 to 30 minutes after meals to take advantage of the body’s natural tendency to have a bowel movement after eating (this is called the gastro-colic reflex). Also, many kids have a time of day they tend to have a bowel movement.
  • Ask your child to sit on the potty if you see clear clues of needing to go to the bathroom, such as crossing legs, grunting, or squatting.
  • Empty a bowel movement (poop) from your child’s diaper into the toilet, and tell your child that poop goes in the potty.
  • Avoid clothes that are hard to take off, such as overalls and shirts that snap in the crotch. Kids who are potty training need to be able to undress themselves.
  • Offer your child small rewards, such as stickers or time reading, every time your child goes in the potty. Keep a chart to track of successes. Once your little one appears to be mastering the use of the toilet, let him or her pick out a few new pairs of big-kid underwear to wear.
  • Make sure all caregivers — including babysitters, grandparents, and childcare workers — follow the same routine and use the same names for body parts and bathroom acts. Let them know how you’re handling toilet training and ask that they use the same approaches so your child won’t be confused.
  • Praise all attempts to use the toilet, even if nothing happens. And remember that accidents will happen. It’s important not to punish potty-training children or show disappointment when they wet or soil themselves or the bed. Instead, tell your child that it was an accident and offer your support. Reassure your child that he or she is well on the way to using the potty like a big kid.

Common Toilet Training Problems

Many kids who’ve been using the potty have some trouble during times of stress. For example, a 2- or 3-year-old dealing with a new sibling may start having accidents.

But if your child was potty-trained and is regularly having problems, talk with your doctor.

Talk to your doctor if you have any questions about toilet training or your child is 4 years or older and is not yet potty trained.

Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD

Date reviewed: March 2019



How to House Train Puppies

Learning how to potty train puppies at the right time and place is one of the most important first steps you can take for a long, happy life together. House soiling is among the top reasons why dogs lose their homes or end up in shelters. Few people are willing to put up with a dog who destroys rugs and flooring, or who leaves a stinky mess that you have to clean after a hard day at work.

That’s why it’s so important to make sure that you do some research in advance on how to house train a dog, decide what will work best for your situation, and make a plan.

There are tried-and-true methods for training your puppy, says Mary Burch, Ph.D., director of the AKC’s Canine Good Citizen and S.T.A.R. Puppy programs. These include:

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  • Crate training
  • Paper training
  • Indoor potty training

Also, frequent walks outside help.

Dr. Burch says that there are pros and cons to each, but they all can be successful if you follow a few basic tips, including:

  • Controlling your dog’s diet
  • Keeping a consistent schedule; this pertains to trips outside, feeding and exercise
  • Providing regular exercise—it helps with motility
  • Reinforcing your puppy for “going” outside
  • Have the right potty training supplies

Let’s explore some of these concepts in depth.

Crates Rank High as a Potty Training Tool

Many people who are new to dogs cringe at the idea of confining their puppies in a crate, but the reluctance to use this tool generally evaporates after a few days of living with a new pet. Dog crates make life easier. It’s a good idea to get your dog accustomed to one for many reasons, such as vet visits, travel, convalescence, and safety.

Dogs are den animals and will seek out a little canine cave for security whether you provide one or not. That makes it relatively easy to train your dog to love her crate.

The principle behind using a crate for housetraining is that dogs are very clean creatures and don’t like a urine-soaked rug in their living spaces any more than you do. It’s important that the crate is the right size—just large enough for the dog to lie down, stand up, and turn around. If it is too large, the dog will feel that it’s OK to use one corner for elimination and then happily settle down away from the mess. Many crates come with partitions so you can adjust the size as your puppy grows.

When she feels an urge, the puppy will usually let you know by whining and scratching. That’s her signal that she has to go and wants out of her little den. Now! Don’t delay because if you let your pup lose control in her crate, she’ll get the idea that it’s OK to mess up her living space. Then she’ll think nothing of leaving little packages around where you live, too.

Puppy Pads and Paper Training

Dr. Burch says the use of puppy pads and paper training can be “tricky because you’re reinforcing two different options for the puppy.” In an ideal situation, pups would learn to hold it indoors and only eliminate at specific spots outdoors. But some cases may require a bit of creative thought, such as a person who has a job that makes it impossible to get home several times a day, or for a tiny dog living where the winters are brutal. Puppy pads give a dog the option of relieving herself in an approved spot at home. There are also high-tech indoor dog bathrooms that even work for male dogs. After the dog matures, the owner can then work on having the dog do her business outdoors all the time.

Create a Housetraining Schedule for Your Puppy

It is vital to housetraining success. Puppies have tiny bladders, and water runs right through them. The same is true for solid matter. You have to make sure you are giving your puppy ample opportunity to do the right thing.

A good guide is that dogs can control their bladders for the number of hours corresponding to their age in months up to about nine months to a year. (Remember, though, that 10 to 12 hours is a long time for anyone to hold it!) A 6-month-old pup can reasonably be expected to hold it for about 6 hours. Never forget that all puppies are individuals and the timing will differ for each.

Monitor daily events and your puppy’s habits when setting up a schedule. With very young puppies, you should expect to take the puppy out:

  • First thing in the morning
  • Last thing at night
  • After playing indoors
  • After spending time in a crate
  • Upon waking up from a nap
  • After chewing a toy or bone
  • After eating
  • After drinking

This could have you running for the piddle pad, backyard, or street a dozen times or more in a 24-hour period. If you work, make some kind of arrangement (bringing your pup to the office or hiring a dog walker) to keep that schedule. The quicker you convey the idea that there is an approved place to potty and that some places are off-limits, the quicker you’ll be able to put this messy chapter behind you.

Observation and Supervision

You have to watch your puppy carefully for individual signals and rhythms. Some puppies may be able to hold it longer than others. Some will have to go out every time they play or get excited. Some will stop in the middle of a play session, pee, and play on. As with human babies, canine potty habits are highly idiosyncratic.

Control the Diet

Puppies have immature digestive systems, so they can’t really handle a lot of food. That’s why it is recommended that you break up the puppy feeding schedule into three small meals. Another thing to keep in mind is the food itself, which should be the highest quality puppy food. Whatever you choose, make sure it agrees with your puppy.

Examining a dog’s stool is the best way for an owner to figure out whether it’s time for a change in diet. If your puppy is consistently producing stools that are bulky, loose, and stinky, it may be time to talk to your vet about switching to a new food. Overfeeding may also provoke a case of diarrhea, which will only make the task of housetraining that much more difficult.


Scolding a puppy for soiling your rug, especially after the fact, isn’t going to do anything except make her think you’re a nut. Likewise, some old methods of punishment, like rubbing a dog’s nose in her poop, are so bizarre that it’s hard to imagine how they came to be and if they ever worked for anyone. On the other hand, praising a puppy for doing the right thing works best for everything you will do in your life together. Make her think that she is a little canine Einstein every time she performs this simple, natural act. Be effusive in your praise—cheer, clap, throw cookies. Let her know that no other accomplishment, ever—not going to the moon, not splitting the atom, not inventing coffee—has been as important as this pee. Reward your pup with one of his favorite treats. Make sure they’re nice and small, easy for your puppy to digest.

If your dog has an accident, says Dr. Burch, don’t make a fuss, just clean up the mess. A cleaner that also kills odors will remove the scent so the dog will not use it in the future. Blot up liquid on the carpet before cleaning the rug.

If you catch the dog starting to squat to urinate or defecate, pick her up and immediately rush outside. If she does the job outdoors, give her praise and attention. Remember that when it comes to housetraining, prevention is the key.

Housetraining Problems

Following these rules will usually result in a well house-trained puppy. But sometimes, it doesn’t go as planned.

Dr. Burch notes that sometimes house soiling is a sign of a physical issue. “Well before the several month mark, a dog who has seemed impossible to housetrain should have a good veterinary workup,” she says. If your vet finds that your dog is healthy, the next step is to find a trainer or behaviorist who has had experience with this issue.

Here are some common complaints that trainers say they have encountered:

  • “My lapdog is piddling all over the house!” This is common among people who own toy dogs. Some trainers recommend teaching little dogs to use indoor potty spots, in much the same way as a cat uses a litter box. In addition to piddle pads, there are actual dog potty boxes for indoor use. Other trainers say that with consistency, you can house train a little dog. It just may take a little additional time, attention, and effort.
  • “My dog keeps peeing in the same spot where she had an accident.” That’s probably because you didn’t clean up the mess efficiently and there is still some odor there, signaling that this is a prime potty spot. In your new puppy supply kit make sure you have plenty of pet stain enzymatic cleaners and carefully follow instructions on using them.
  • “I gave her the run of the apartment. When I came home, there was a mess. This is a common mistake among dog owners. They see some early signs that the dog is getting the idea, and declare victory too soon. Even when the puppy is consistently doing what you want, keep to the schedule to make sure the good habits are ingrained.
  • “He’s soiling his crate!” Dr. Burch says dogs who come from pet stores, shelters, or other situations where they have been confined for long periods and have had no other choice but to eliminate in their kennels will often soil their crates. The best approach would be to go back to square one with crate and house training. Here are the steps to follow:
    • Assess how well your dog can control his bladder and bowels when not in the crate.
    • Carefully controlling diet and schedule.
    • Give frequent trips outside, including after every meal, first thing in the morning and last thing at night.
    • If you work, consider a dog walker.
    • Clean everything so there are no odors left.

How Long Does Puppy Potty Training Take?

That can vary considerably, says Dr. Burch. There are many factors to consider, such as age, learning history, and your methods and consistency. An 8-week-old puppy is very different developmentally than a 5-month-old puppy. Some puppies have perfect manners after just a few days. Others can take months, especially if the dog has had a less than ideal situation before coming to you. With patience and persistence, though, most dogs can learn.

 At AKC Marketplace, we can help you find your dream dog. You can find AKC-registerable puppies from responsible, passionate breeders, and we provide the tools you need for every step of the process. Visit marketplace.akc.org to start connecting with dog breeders in your area!

Course structure PADI Scuba Diving at Aqua-Don Diving Center


Open water swimmer with the right to dive up to 18 m with a partner.

The PADI Open Water Diver course is one of the most popular courses and is the ticket to a world of exciting adventures.
It was developed by the PADI association, which sets the standard for diving training worldwide.

The course introduces students to the basics of scuba diving, diving equipment and various techniques. During the course of this program, students get the opportunity to comfortably and safely swim underwater and easily find a way out of any non-standard situation. At the end of the course, PADI Open Water Diver certificate, which is recognized worldwide. To get it, you need to attend 5 theoretical classes, make at least 5 dives in the pool and dives in open water (lake, river, sea, i.e. a natural reservoir).

The PADI Open Water Diver certification allows you to dive with a partner even in the absence of a professional. Those who have already participated in the PADI Discover Scuba Diving program or have a PADI Scuba Diver certification should check with their dive instructor which exercises can be recredited.

Start your classes today. There is a PADI Open Water Diver DVD and tutorials for this. Diving lessons can be done in a group or individually. The flexibility of the program and class schedule is almost limitless.

The PADI Open Water Diver certification is open to any reasonably healthy person who has mastered the skills required for the qualification. For children 10-14 years old, there is a PADI Junior Open Water Diver program.

Equipment rental, dive plan book and pool pass are included in the price of the diving course.
Classes are held at a convenient time for you.

After completing the course and receiving the PADI Open Water Diver certificate, scuba divers can continue their diving training in Rostov at the following courses.


For those who want to improve their skills and get the most out of diving, the PADI Advanced Open Water Diver course has been created. This is a step on the way to new adventures.

The Advanced Open Water Diver course gives you the confidence and experience to learn under the guidance of a PADI professional. Thanks to the wide range of opportunities provided by the course program, everyone will be able to choose exactly what he is interested in. Training takes place directly in the water during the dive, where all skills are practiced in practice. The course program includes 5 dives from the following list:

  • Altitude Diver
  • AWARE Fish Identification
  • Boat Diver
  • Dive Propulsion Vehicle
  • Drift Diver
  • Dry Suit Diver
  • Deep Diver
  • Multilevel Diver
  • Night Diver
  • Peak Performance Buoyancy
  • Search and Recovery (search and recovery of sunken objects)
  • Underwater Naturalist
  • Underwater Navigator
  • Underwater Photographer
  • Underwater Videographer
  • Wreck Diver

The Advanced Open Water Diver program is open to anyone who is at least 12 years old and holds a PADI Open Water Diver, Junior Open Water Diver or equivalent certification.

In order for a to earn the PADI Advanced Open Water Diver certification, a total of 5 dives are required, of which Deep Diver and Underwater Navigation are mandatory. Children aged 12-14 who successfully complete the program will receive the Junior Adventure Diver and Junior Advanced Open Water Diver certificates, respectively. The maximum depth recommended for this program is 30 meters.

Adventure Diver and Advanced Open Water Diver over 15 years of age can choose the Deep Diver and Wreck Diver specialty courses. By earning a PADI Advanced Open Water Diver or Junior Advanced Open Water Diver certification, a diver reaches the level required to complete the Rescue Diver course. In addition, he can choose any special course. Only for some special courses there are age restrictions: Cavern Diver (diving in grottoes) — 18 years, Semiclosed Rebreather Dolphin / Atlantis / Ray (semi-closed rebreather) — 15 years, Search and Recovery (search and recovery of sunken objects) — 12 years.

Furthermore, each dive in a PADI AOWD course will count as the first dive to qualify as a PADI Specialty Diver. For example, if you have completed a night dive in the Adventure Diver program, it is also considered the first dive in the Night Diver specialty course.

This Scuba Diving course requires a manual, which you can purchase from the dive center or instructor.
For confidence, experience and an unforgettable adventure, visit our PADI Dive Center. There you will not only receive detailed information about the Advanced Open Water course, but you will also be able to purchase educational literature.


This course makes learning about the important aspect of accident prevention fun. The Rescue Diver course makes you think about how to make diving safe not only for yourself, but also for others.

You will learn how to prevent accidents while diving, as well as to act quickly in extreme situations: adequately respond to diver behavior, deal with problems, provide assistance to the diver, including medical assistance. Having a Rescue Diver certification or equivalent allows you to begin training in a program designed for professionals.

Divers 15 years of age or older with a PADI Advanced Open Water certification or equivalent may join. For children aged 12-14 who are certified PADI Junior Advanced Open Water Diver or equivalent, there is a PADI Junior Rescue Diver course. It is also required to have a certificate of completion of the Emergency First Response course or similar CPR training course, issued no more than 2 years ago.

The Scuba Diving course includes the following sections:

  • rescue and divers stress
  • diving first aid
  • emergency response
  • water and land assistance
  • panicked diver
  • action plan in case of loss of a diver
  • surfacing of an unconscious diver
  • artificial respiration on the surface of the water
  • getting out of the water
  • medical assistance in case of accidents related to pressure
  • diving accident scenarios

All of these topics are covered in the PADI Rescue Diver Manual and also on the Rescue Diver Videotape.

This course requires a textbook, which you can purchase from our dive center.

Upon completion of the course, the world-renowned Rescue Diver certificate is awarded. For more information about the course, please contact our PADI Dive Center.


The PADI Master Scuba Diver is the highest ranked recreational diver. Divers who receive this title have mastered all PADI amateur courses and reached the very top.

This title indicates a high level of skill and experience of a diver.

The title is awarded to divers aged 12 or over who hold the following certifications: PADI Open Water Diver or equivalent, PADI Advanced Open Water, Rescue Diver and five PADI Specialty Diver certifications. For those already qualified as a PADI Divemaster or Assistant Instructor, you must complete any 5 specialty courses to earn PADI Specialty Diver certifications.

If you want to become a Master Scuba Diver, please contact our PADI Dive Center.


PADI Professional Courses are a chance to explore the underwater world and its inhabitants and share your knowledge and experience with the students you teach. Every day the popularity of diving all over the world is growing. PADI Professionals make money doing what they love and helping divers achieve the level they want.

Professionals are envied, they are respected for their hard work, and many simply admire them. Professional divers own dive centers and resorts, train by traveling all over the world and take part in fun and exciting activities both on land and in the water. As a PADI Pro, you won’t be sitting in the office from 9 to 18: you will have a lot of opportunities.

The diving industry is booming, with job openings now outnumbering those applying for them. To make a career in PADI, you only need your desire. You decide what level you want to reach, and the PADI training system will help you do it at a convenient time and date for you. So cost of courses PADI you can find on our website.



PADI Courses

Description, requirements and prices for diving training according to the international standard with the issuance of a PADI certificate.


Each diving course deepens your knowledge of diving techniques, increasing safety and making every dive more fun.

Even before the start of the course, the instructor will tell you about the course structure, the number of dives and the necessary exercises that you will need to complete in the practical part of the training.

The days of the course can be chosen taking into account the rest schedule and your wishes.

Upon successful completion of theory and practice, you will receive a diver’s certificate — a plastic card with your photo and your personal PADI diver number.

For a better understanding of the theoretical part of any course, you will be provided with a textbook in Russian.

PADI produces a wide range of learning aids such as books, magazines, instructional videos, dive logbooks, and more. All of these materials are available in almost every language in the world.

Having reached the Divemaster level, you will get access to your personal account on the official site padi.com where you can follow the latest news in the diving world, choose the best dive resorts for your vacation and even find a job.

To become a PADI Instructor and learn how to teach diving yourself, you must complete a Dive Master (DM) course, complete at least 100 dives, and enroll in an IDC Instructor Training Seminar.

Examinations for future instructors are administered by the PADI Visiting Committee. Therefore, you can be sure that any instructor who has received the title of Open Water Scuba Instructor has undergone excellent training, knows and is able to teach divers of any level up to Divemaster.

Diving courses according to PADI standards:

  • Have you already studied the theory, completed training in the pool and passed tests, and do you want to pass open water in the warm waters of the Andaman Sea in Phuket, Thailand? The PADI Open Water Diver Referral course is what you need!
  • Do you have little time but a strong desire to become a certified diver? Then the Scuba Diver PADI course is perfect for you.

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