Trace shapes: Preschool Shapes Tracing – Heart, Star, Circle, Square, Triangle, Pentagon, Hexagon, Octagon, Oval, Rectangle, Diamond, Heptagon, Nonagon, Decagon – 18 Worksheets / FREE Printable Worksheets – Worksheetfun

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Preschool Shapes Tracing – Heart, Star, Circle, Square, Triangle, Pentagon, Hexagon, Octagon, Oval, Rectangle, Diamond, Heptagon, Nonagon, Decagon – 18 Worksheets / FREE Printable Worksheets – Worksheetfun

Preschool Shapes Tracing – Heart, Star, Circle, Square, Triangle, Pentagon, Hexagon, Octagon, Oval, Rectangle, Diamond, Heptagon, Nonagon, Decagon – 18 Worksheets


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Pre-Writing Worksheets

Preschool Shapes Tracing – 5 Worksheets

Preschool Shapes Worksheet

Preschool shapes recognition practice worksheet – Identify Shapes – Heart, Star, Circle, Square, Triangle, Pentagon, Hexagon, Octagon, Oval, Rectangle, and Diamond

Heart, Star, Circle, Square, Triangle, Pentagon, Hexagon, Octagon, Oval, Rectangle and Diamond

Worksheet 1 – Download

Heart, Star, Circle, Square, Triangle, Pentagon, Hexagon, Octagon, Oval, Rectangle and Diamond

Worksheet 2 – Download

Heart, Circle, Square, Triangle, Pentagon, Octagon

Worksheet 3 – Download

 Circle, Square, Triangle, Oval, Rectangle, and Diamond

Worksheet 4 – Download

Circle, Triangle, Pentagon, Hexagon, Octagon, Rectangle

Worksheet 5 – Download

Heart, Star, Circle, Square, Triangle, and Diamond

Worksheet 6 – Download

Basic Shape Names – Geometric Shape Name Labels – 2D Shapes and Labels – Shapes Names -Shapes with Labels

Basic Shape Names – Geometric Shape Name Labels – 2D Shapes and Labels – Shapes Names -Shapes with Labels

Heart, Circle, Square, Triangle, Pentagon, Hexagon, Octagon, Oval, Rectangle and Diamond – Worksheet 7here

Basic Shape Names – Geometric Shape Name Labels – 2D Shapes and Labels – Shapes Names -Shapes with Labels

Heart, Circle, Square, Triangle – Worksheet 8 –here

Basic Shape Names – Geometric Shape Name Labels – 2D Shapes and Labels – Shapes Names -Shapes with Labels

Circle, Square, Triangle, Pentagon, Hexagon, Octagon – Worksheet 9 –here


Basic Shape Names – Geometric Shape Name Labels – 2D Shapes and Labels – Shapes Names -Shapes with Labels

Pentagon, Hexagon, Octagon, Oval, Rectangle, and Diamond – Worksheet 10- here

Triangle, Rectangle, Pentagon, Hexagon, Heptagon, Octagon, Nonagon, DecagonWorksheet 11 –here

Pentagon, Hexagon, Heptagon, Octagon, Nonagon, DecagonWorksheet 12 –here

Practice Picture Tracing

Circle, Triangle, and Rectangle – Worksheet 13 – here

Circle, Octagon, Oval, Triangle, and Rectangle – Worksheet 14 – here

Worksheet 15, 16, 17 & 18 here


Shape Names – Shape Labels


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Trace Shapes Workbook Grade Preschool-K Paperback

Brighter Child

Look Inside

Brighter Child

32 pages

PreK-Grade K / Ages 3-6

Product ID:



$3. 99


In Trace Shapes, your child will practice holding a pencil or crayon correctly while tracing over shapes or coloring pictures. Your child will develop the fine motor control needed for kindergarten while also learning to recognize colors! and shapes!


UPC 044222226572
CopyRight TX 7-902-339
ISBN 9781620574522
Product Detail Workbook
Series Big Skills for Little Hands®
Topics Big Skills for Little Hands
Topics Colors & Shapes
Topics Motor Skills
Topics Shapes
Topics Overstock Sale
Subjects Early Learning

Free Resources


    Shapes Worksheets for Kindergarten — Superstar Worksheets

    Super Star Team2022-04-12T10:24:39-07:00

    12 FREE shape worksheets for Kindergarten! Students will have a TON of FUN while they build their knowledge of tracing, matching, spatial awareness, and shape identification with these delightful worksheets. They contain shapes such as circles, triangles, squares, rectangles, and more complex shapes, such as stars, trapezoids, hearts, ovals diamonds, and more. If you are looking for more fun with shapes try our Shape of the Week Program.

    Tracing Shapes Worksheets

    Learning shapes have so many benefits for your toddlers and preschoolers. One of the benefits to learn various shapes is to help them differentiate between objects. Kids focus on the little details more and tend to memorize how the shapes compare to each other. These worksheets include so many fun activities to color, learn shapes, and follow directions.

    Preschool Shapes Worksheets

    Even from an early age, kids recognize differences in objects and their shapes. Sometimes it takes longer for young children to learn the specific dimensions of each shape, like their appearance and how many sides each shape includes. Preschoolers getting lots of practice with shapes help them reinforce their understanding of two-dimensional structures. Worksheets that include shapes are wonderful hands-on activities for toddlers and preschoolers.

    Shapes for Kindergarten Worksheets

    Since little ones recognize differences between 2 objects with our shapes printables, this detail-oriented learning is great for anything in life! We highly recommend all young children gain lots of practice with learning their shapes.

    Color by Shape Worksheets

    Students use and build their skills in following directions, color matching, labeling and identifying shapes and more. In addition, these exercises help children strengthen their focusing and following directions skills. With a combination of entertainment, education, and experience in learning shapes, it is sure to be a fun activity.

    Color by Shape Worksheet

    Students use the color guide to match shapes in this fun troll worksheet. Have student color each shape to help them easily color each shape-themed trol..

    Color by Shape Worksheet

    Students use the color guide to shape match with this cute troll worksheet. Kids will learn the various shapes like diamond, hexagon, circle and oval.

    Color by Shape Worksheet

    Ice cream for all in this fun color and shape matching worksheet. Did you know a honeycomb is the shape of a hexagon?!!

    Shape Tracing Worksheets

    Students will learn to trace shapes, such as circles, triangles, and squares with these single shape worksheets. They will also practice spatial awareness with on and in. It combines creativity with shapes in an enjoyable worksheet. Check out our Fine Motor Shape Bundle for even more awesome hands-on activities!

    Trace the Triangles Shapes Worksheets

    Students will learn shape recognition with our learn to trace triangles, identify shapes, and spatial awareness with this worksheet.

    Circle Shape Tracing Worksheets

    In this worksheet, Students trace the lines of the circle while learning names of shapes and spatial awareness. How many circles do you see?

    Preschool Shape Tracing the Squares

    This worksheet will teach students how to trace and recognize squares as well as spatial awareness. Draw a bow on a square!

    Shape Name, Trace and Color Worksheets

    Students will have fun with these shape naming, shape identification and coloring worksheets. With ice cream, house and boat themes, it will entice their creativity, in this delightful activity.

    Name, Trace and Color Worksheet

    Students will have fun with this ice cream theme worksheet as they learn shape names and how they are drawn through tracing.

    Tracing Shapes Worksheets

    This boat, shape tracing worksheet is sure to be a hit. It will help the students learn shape names while being creative.

    Shapes for Kindergarten Worksheet

    Name, trace and color this worksheet to complete the house. A creative way to learn shapes. Students can color, then trace each shape and write them.

    Shape Tracing and Drawing Worksheets

    Tracing shapes has now moved up to freehand drawing with these next-level shape drawing worksheets. It is a great way to scaffold to the next step. With simple and complex shapes, these worksheets are a great way to progress in shape drawing.

    Trace and Draw Shapes Worksheets

    Students will learn to trace and draw shapes with this handy worksheet. This free shape worksheet includes a trapezoid, heart, hexagon, and pentagon.

    Free Shapes Worksheets

    This free shapes worksheet will help children trace then free-hand simple shapes. Kids will trace circle, star, square, and triangle.

    Free Printable Shapes for Kindergarten

    Students will learn simple and complex shapes through tracing with this worksheet. Students learn the names of all 9 basic shapes.

    Shape Symmetry Worksheet

    Students will learn how to follow directions as they finish the shapes and trace the links. These worksheets teach shape recognition with simple shapes such as circles, squares and triangles as well as more complex shapes such as hearts, trapezoids, octagons, hexagons and more. Bringing it to the next level is a worksheet that focusing on symmetry and the beginnings of fractions.

    2D Shape Worksheets

    Students will learn shape names, recognition, and build on following directions with this tracing worksheet.

    Shape Recognition Sheets

    This worksheet is a great way to have students follow directions as they learn shape recognition and names.

    Shape Symmetry Sheets

    This worksheet gives students a more in-depth look at the symmetry of shapes as well as the beginning stages of fractions.

    3 Dinosaurs — Christmas Tree Spin & Trace Shapes

    Please print off as many or as few as you would like as many times as you would like. If you find any errors or typos please let me know. Download is below.

    Related tags:
    Prewriting Practice, Shape Printables, Kindergarten, PreK, Tot & Preschool

    Click here to see how we used this printable.

    By downloading you agree to the Terms of Use.

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    Christmas Tree Spin & Trace Shapes Printable

    Christmas Tree Spin & Trace Shapes Printable contains 2 pages:

    • No-prep shape printable with tracing
    • Shapes: circle, square, triangle, rectangle, rhombus/diamond, oval, heart, star

    Click on the files below to download your copy of the Christmas Tree Spin & Trace Shapes Printable.
    By Downloading you agree to the Terms of Use.

    • Download Christmas Tree Spin & Trace Shapes Printable

    Looking for additional ideas check out my Pinterest board.

    Christmas Shape Find

    Christmas Shape Find contains 26 pages:

    • 12 shapes: circle, square, triangle, rectangle, rhombus/diamond, oval, heart, star, crescent, hexagon, octagon.
    • Tracing section for each shape and shape word

    Click on the files below to download your copy of the Christmas Shape Find.
    By Downloading you agree to the Terms of Use.

    • Download Christmas Shape Find Sample

    You can get the full set for $3.00 at the links below.

    Click here to get your copy at Teachers Pay Teachers

    Looking for additional ideas check out my Pinterest board.

    Prewriting Practice

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    Learn At Home: Kindergarten

    Fall Learning: Kindergarten Apple Week

    Fall Learning: Kindergarten Community Weekly Pack

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    Winter Learning: PreK Animals in Winter Week

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    All Printables on 3 Dinosaurs

    For help with pdf problems please read this post: Printables Help and Errors.

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    Shapes in Python


    > Fundamentals

    > Shapes

    Suggest an edit to this page

    How to make SVG shapes in python. Examples of lines, circle, rectangle, and path.

    New to Plotly?

    Plotly is a free and open-source graphing library for Python. We recommend you read our Getting Started guide for the latest installation or upgrade instructions, then move on to our Plotly Fundamentals tutorials or dive straight in to some Basic Charts tutorials.

    Adding Lines and Polygons to Figures¶

    As a general rule, there are two ways to add shapes (lines or polygons) to figures:

    1. Trace types in the scatter family (e.g. scatter, scatter3d, scattergeo etc) can be drawn with mode="lines" and optionally support a fill="self" attribute, and so can be used to draw open or closed shapes on figures.
    2. Standalone lines, ellipses and rectangles can be added to figures using fig.add_shape(), and they can be positioned absolutely within the figure, or they can be positioned relative to the axes of 2d cartesian subplots i. e. in data coordinates.

    Note: there are special methods add_hline, add_vline, add_hrect and add_vrect for the common cases of wanting to draw horizontal or vertical lines or rectangles that are fixed to data coordinates in one axis and absolutely positioned in another.

    The differences between these two approaches are that:

    • Traces can optionally support hover labels and can appear in legends.
    • Shapes can be positioned absolutely or relative to data coordinates in 2d cartesian subplots only.
    • Traces cannot be positioned absolutely but can be positioned relative to date coordinates in any subplot type.
    • Traces also support optional text, although there is a textual equivalent to shapes in text annotations.

    Shape-drawing with Scatter traces¶

    There are two ways to draw filled shapes: scatter traces and layout.shapes which is mostly useful for the 2d subplots, and defines the shape type to be drawn, and can be rectangle, circle, line, or path (a custom SVG path). You also can use scatterpolar, scattergeo, scattermapbox to draw filled shapes on any kind of subplots. To set an area to be filled with a solid color, you need to define Scatter.fill=»toself» that connects the endpoints of the trace into a closed shape. If mode=line (default value), then you need to repeat the initial point of a shape at the of the sequence to have a closed shape.

    In [1]:

    import plotly.graph_objects as go
    fig = go.Figure(go.Scatter(x=[0,1,2,0], y=[0,2,0,0], fill="toself"))

    You can have more shapes either by adding more traces or interrupting the series with None.

    In [2]:

    import plotly.graph_objects as go
    fig = go.Figure(go.Scatter(x=[0,1,2,0,None,3,3,5,5,3], y=[0,2,0,0,None,0.5,1.5,1.5,0.5,0.5], fill="toself"))
    Shapes in Dash¶

    Dash is the best way to build analytical apps in Python using Plotly figures. To run the app below, run pip install dash, click «Download» to get the code and run python app. py.

    Get started with the official Dash docs and learn how to effortlessly style & deploy apps like this with Dash Enterprise.


    Vertical and Horizontal Lines Positioned Relative to the Axis Data¶

    In [4]:

    import plotly.graph_objects as go
    fig = go.Figure()
    # Create scatter trace of text labels
        x=[2, 3.5, 6],
        y=[1, 1.5, 1],
        text=["Vertical Line",
              "Horizontal Dashed Line",
              "Diagonal dotted Line"],
    # Set axes ranges
    fig.update_xaxes(range=[0, 7])
    fig.update_yaxes(range=[0, 2.5])
    # Add shapes
        x0=1, y0=0, x1=1, y1=2,
        x0=2, y0=2, x1=5, y1=2,
        x0=4, y0=0, x1=6, y1=2,
    fig. update_shapes(dict(xref='x', yref='y'))
    Lines Positioned Relative to the Plot & to the Axis Data¶

    In [5]:

    import plotly.graph_objects as go
    fig = go.Figure()
    # Create scatter trace of text labels
        x=[2, 6], y=[1, 1],
        text=["Line positioned relative to the plot",
              "Line positioned relative to the axes"],
    # Set axes ranges
    fig.update_xaxes(range=[0, 8])
    fig.update_yaxes(range=[0, 2])
        xref="x", yref="y",
        x0=4, y0=0, x1=8, y1=1,
        xref="paper", yref="paper",
        x0=0, y0=0, x1=0.5,
    Rectangles Positioned Relative to the Axis Data¶

    In [6]:

    import plotly.graph_objects as go
    fig = go.Figure()
        x=[1.5, 4.5],
        y=[0. 75, 0.75],
        text=["Unfilled Rectangle", "Filled Rectangle"],
    # Set axes properties
    fig.update_xaxes(range=[0, 7], showgrid=False)
    fig.update_yaxes(range=[0, 3.5])
    # Add shapes
        x0=1, y0=1, x1=2, y1=3,
        x0=3, y0=1, x1=6, y1=2,
    fig.update_shapes(dict(xref='x', yref='y'))
    Rectangle Positioned Relative to the Plot & to the Axis Data¶

    In [7]:

    import plotly.graph_objects as go
    fig = go.Figure()
    # Create scatter trace of text labels
        x=[1.5, 3],
        y=[2.5, 2.5],
        text=["Rectangle reference to the plot",
              "Rectangle reference to the axes"],
    # Set axes properties
    fig.update_xaxes(range=[0, 4])
    fig.update_yaxes(range=[0, 4])
    # Add shapes
        xref="x", yref="y",
        x0=2. 5, y0=0,
        x1=3.5, y1=2,
        xref="paper", yref="paper",
        x0=0.25, y0=0,
        x1=0.5, y1=0.5,
    A Rectangle Placed Relative to the Axis Position and Length¶

    A shape can be placed relative to an axis’s position on the plot by adding the
    string ' domain' to the axis reference in the xref or yref attributes for
    The following code places a rectangle that starts at 60% and ends at 70% along
    the x-axis, starting from the left, and starts at 80% and ends at 90% along the
    y-axis, starting from the bottom.

    In [8]:

    import plotly.graph_objects as go
    import as px
    df =
    fig = px.scatter(df, y="frequency")
    fig.update_layout(xaxis=dict(domain=[0, 0.5]), yaxis=dict(domain=[0. 25, 0.75]))
    # Add a shape whose x and y coordinates refer to the domains of the x and y axes
        xref="x domain", yref="y domain",
        x0=0.6, x1=0.7, y0=0.8, y1=0.9,
    Highlighting Time Series Regions with Rectangle Shapes¶

    Note: there are special methods add_hline, add_vline, add_hrect and add_vrect for the common cases of wanting to draw horizontal or vertical lines or rectangles that are fixed to data coordinates in one axis and absolutely positioned in another.

    In [9]:

    import plotly.graph_objects as go
    fig = go.Figure()
    # Add scatter trace for line
        x=["2015-02-01", "2015-02-02", "2015-02-03", "2015-02-04", "2015-02-05",
           "2015-02-06", "2015-02-07", "2015-02-08", "2015-02-09", "2015-02-10",
           "2015-02-11", "2015-02-12", "2015-02-13", "2015-02-14", "2015-02-15",
           "2015-02-16", "2015-02-17", "2015-02-18", "2015-02-19", "2015-02-20",
           "2015-02-21", "2015-02-22", "2015-02-23", "2015-02-24", "2015-02-25",
           "2015-02-26", "2015-02-27", "2015-02-28"],
        y=[-14, -17, -8, -4, -7, -10, -12, -14, -12, -7, -11, -7, -18, -14, -14,
           -16, -13, -7, -8, -14, -8, -3, -9, -9, -4, -13, -9, -6],
    # Add shape regions
    fig. add_vrect(
        x0="2015-02-04", x1="2015-02-06",
        fillcolor="LightSalmon", opacity=0.5,
        layer="below", line_width=0,
        x0="2015-02-20", x1="2015-02-22",
        fillcolor="LightSalmon", opacity=0.5,
        layer="below", line_width=0,
    Circles Positioned Relative to the Axis Data¶

    In [10]:

    import plotly.graph_objects as go
    fig = go.Figure()
    # Create scatter trace of text labels
        x=[1.5, 3.5],
        y=[0.75, 2.5],
        text=["Unfilled Circle",
              "Filled Circle"],
    # Set axes properties
    fig.update_xaxes(range=[0, 4.5], zeroline=False)
    fig.update_yaxes(range=[0, 4.5])
    # Add circles
        xref="x", yref="y",
        x0=1, y0=1, x1=3, y1=3,
        xref="x", yref="y",
        x0=3, y0=3, x1=4, y1=4,
    # Set figure size
    fig.update_layout(width=800, height=800)
    fig. show()
    Highlighting Clusters of Scatter Points with Circle Shapes¶

    In [11]:

    import plotly.graph_objects as go
    import numpy as np
    # Generate data
    x0 = np.random.normal(2, 0.45, 300)
    y0 = np.random.normal(2, 0.45, 300)
    x1 = np.random.normal(6, 0.4, 200)
    y1 = np.random.normal(6, 0.4, 200)
    # Create figure
    fig = go.Figure()
    # Add scatter traces
    fig.add_trace(go.Scatter(x=x0, y=y0, mode="markers"))
    fig.add_trace(go.Scatter(x=x1, y=y1, mode="markers"))
    # Add shapes
        xref="x", yref="y",
        x0=min(x0), y0=min(y0),
        x1=max(x0), y1=max(y0),
        xref="x", yref="y",
        x0=min(x1), y0=min(y1),
        x1=max(x1), y1=max(y1),
    # Hide legend
    Venn Diagram with Circle Shapes¶

    In [12]:

    import plotly. graph_objects as go
    fig = go.Figure()
    # Create scatter trace of text labels
        x=[1, 1.75, 2.5],
        y=[1, 1, 1],
        text=["$A$", "$A+B$", "$B$"],
    # Update axes properties
    # Add circles
        line_color="blue", fillcolor="blue",
        x0=0, y0=0, x1=2, y1=2
        line_color="gray", fillcolor="gray",
        x0=1.5, y0=0, x1=3.5, y1=2
    fig.update_shapes(opacity=0.3, xref="x", yref="y")
        margin=dict(l=20, r=20, b=100),
        height=600, width=800,
    Adding Shapes to Subplots¶

    Here we use the different axes (x1, x2) created by make_subplots as reference in order to draw shapes in figure subplots.

    In [13]:

    import plotly.graph_objects as go
    from plotly.subplots import make_subplots
    # Create Subplots
    fig = make_subplots(rows=2, cols=2)
    fig.add_trace(go.Scatter(x=[2, 6], y=[1,1]), row=1, col=1)
    fig.add_trace(go.Bar(x=[1,2,3], y=[4,5,6]), row=1, col=2)
    fig.add_trace(go.Scatter(x=[10,20], y=[40,50]), row=2, col=1)
    fig.add_trace(go.Bar(x=[11,13,15], y=[8,11,20]), row=2, col=2)
    # Add shapes
            dict(type="line", xref="x", yref="y",
                x0=3, y0=0.5, x1=5, y1=0.8, line_width=3),
            dict(type="rect", xref="x2", yref='y2',
                 x0=4, y0=2, x1=5, y1=6),
            dict(type="rect", xref="x3", yref="y3",
                 x0=10, y0=20, x1=15, y1=30),
            dict(type="circle", xref="x4", yref="y4",
                 x0=5, y0=12, x1=10, y1=18)])
    Adding the Same Shapes to Multiple Subplots¶

    The same shape can be added to multiple facets by using the 'all'
    keyword in the row and col arguments. For example

    In [14]:

    import as px
    df =
    fig = px.scatter(df, x="total_bill", y="tip", facet_row="smoker", facet_col="sex")
    # Adds a rectangle to all facets
        dict(type="rect", x0=25, x1=35, y0=4, y1=6, line_color="purple"),
    # Adds a line to all the rows of the second column
        dict(type="line", x0=20, x1=25, y0=5, y1=6, line_color="yellow"), row="all", col=2
    # Adds a circle to all the columns of the first row
        dict(type="circle", x0=10, y0=2, x1=20, y1=7), row=1, col="all", line_color="green"
    SVG Paths¶

    In [15]:

    import plotly.graph_objects as go
    fig = go.Figure()
    # Create scatter trace of text labels
        x=[2, 1, 8, 8],
        y=[0.25, 9, 2, 6],
        text=["Filled Triangle",
              "Filled Polygon",
              "Quadratic Bezier Curves",
              "Cubic Bezier Curves"],
    # Update axes properties
    fig. update_xaxes(
        range=[0, 9],
        range=[0, 11],
    # Add shapes
            # Quadratic Bezier Curves
                path="M 4,4 Q 6,0 8,4",
            # Cubic Bezier Curves
                path="M 1,4 C 2,8 6,4 8,8",
            # filled Triangle
                path=" M 1 1 L 1 3 L 4 1 Z",
            # filled Polygon
                path=" M 3,7 L2,8 L2,9 L3,10, L4,10 L5,9 L5,8 L4,7 Z",

    Drawing shapes with a Mouse on Cartesian plots¶

    introduced in plotly 4.7

    You can create layout shapes programmatically, but you can also draw shapes manually by setting the dragmode to one of the shape-drawing modes: 'drawline','drawopenpath', 'drawclosedpath', 'drawcircle', or 'drawrect'. If you need to switch between different shape-drawing or other dragmodes (panning, selecting, etc.), modebar buttons can be added in the config to select the dragmode. If you switch to a different dragmode such as pan or zoom, you will need to select the drawing tool in the modebar to go back to shape drawing.

    This shape-drawing feature is particularly interesting for annotating graphs, in particular image traces or layout images.

    Once you have drawn shapes, you can select and modify an existing shape by clicking on its boundary (note the arrow pointer). Its fillcolor turns to pink to highlight the activated shape and then you can

    • drag and resize it for lines, rectangles and circles/ellipses
    • drag and move individual vertices for closed paths
    • move individual vertices for open paths.

    An activated shape is deleted by clicking on the eraseshape button.

    Drawing or modifying a shape triggers a relayout event, which can be captured by a callback inside a Dash application.

    In [16]:

    import plotly.graph_objects as go
    fig = go.Figure()
    text="Click and drag here <br> to draw a rectangle <br><br> or select another shape <br>in the modebar"
    # shape defined programatically
                  x0=-1, x1=0, y0=2, y1=3,
                  xref='x', yref='y')
    # define dragmode and add modebar buttons

    Style of user-drawn shapes¶

    The layout newshape attribute controls the visual appearance of new shapes drawn by the user. newshape attributes have the same names as layout shapes.

    Note on shape opacity: having a new shape’s opacity > 0.5 makes it possible to activate a shape by clicking inside the shape (for opacity <= 0.5 you have to click on the border of the shape), but you cannot start a new shape within an existing shape (which is possible for an opacity <= 0.5).

    In [17]:

    import plotly.graph_objects as go
    fig = go.Figure()
    text="Click and drag<br> to draw a rectangle <br><br> or select another shape <br>in the modebar"
    # shape defined programatically
                  x0=0, x1=1, y0=2, y1=3,
                  xref='x', yref='y'
    fig. update_layout(dragmode='drawrect',
                      # style of new shapes

    What About Dash?¶

    Dash is an open-source framework for building analytical applications, with no Javascript required, and it is tightly integrated with the Plotly graphing library.

    Learn about how to install Dash at

    Everywhere in this page that you see, you can display the same figure in a Dash application by passing it to the figure argument of the Graph component from the built-in dash_core_components package like this:

    import plotly. graph_objects as go # or as px
    fig = go.Figure() # or any Plotly Express function e.g.
    # fig.add_trace( ... )
    # fig.update_layout( ... )
    import dash
    import dash_core_components as dcc
    import dash_html_components as html
    app = dash.Dash()
    app.layout = html.Div([
    app.run_server(debug=True, use_reloader=False)  # Turn off reloader if inside Jupyter

    16 Printable Shape Tracing Worksheets

    Learn shapes with our Shape Tracing Worksheets. Trace the shape, color the shapes and trace the word. Great shape worksheets for kindergarten, preschool and toddlers.

    Are the Shape Tracing Worksheets Free?

    Good news! One Shape Tracing Worksheet is free! With this shape printable you can trace and color 15 of the shapes. This kindergarten shape worksheet is a perfect shapes printable to use to introduce shapes to preschool or kindergarten students. Even toddlers will love this free beginner shape worksheet. Just trace and color!

    Grab the free Shape Tracing Worksheet at the bottom of the post. No form to fill out just look for the “Get the Freebie” button.

    Want more? Grab our Shape Tracing Worksheets Bundle for only $5.00

    *The bundle includes 16 Printable Shape Worksheets

    Are you planning a lesson around shapes? Our 16 Shape Tracing Worksheets is a perfect resource if you’re planning on introducing these 2d shapes to your children or students.

    Your kids or students will have fun with these shape worksheets at home or in the classroom. They are asked to:

    • Trace the shape.
    • Color the shapes.
    • Trace the shape word.

    The children are learning about the shape, how to draw the shape, and how to write the word.

    Get the 16 Shapes Bundle

    What’s included in the Shape Tracing Worksheets Bundle?

    1. Circle Shape Printable

    Learn about the shape of a circle with this printable circles worksheet. Trace the circle. Color the circle shapes, including a clock, pizza and orange. Practice writing and trace the word circle.

    2. Crescent Shape Printable

    Learn about the shape of a crescent with our crescent worksheet! Trace the crescent shape. Color the crescent shapes, including a moon, a croissant and a fish’s tail! Practice writing and trace the word crescent.

    3. Cross Shape Printable

    Learn about the cross shape with our cross printable. Trace the cross shape. Color the cross shapes, including a shield, a math equation and a crosswalk. Trace the word cross.

    4. Diamond Shape Printable

    Learn about the beautiful diamond shape our diamond shape worksheets! Trace the diamonds and color the diamond jewel, kite, and crown. Trace the word diamond.

    5. Heart Shape Printable

    Learn about the heart shape! The heart shape is unique because it’s shape is similar to the heart organ. Trace the heart shapes and color the heart card, heart balloon and heart emoji face. Trace the word heart.

    6. Hexagon Shape Printable

    Learn about the beautiful hexagon shape. Practice fine motor skills and trace the hexagon shape. Color the hexagon shapes including the honey comb, hexagon snowflake and the watch.

    7. Octagon Shape Printable

    The octagon can be a tricky shape. Learn about this eight sided shape with our Octagon worksheet. Trace the octagon shape, color the octagon shapes including the stop sign, the octagon jewel and spider-web.

    8. Oval Shape Printable

    The oval shape is pretty much a squished circle. Learn more about the oval with our oval printable worksheet. Trace the oval shape, color the oval shapes, including the watermelon, oval hand mirror and eggs. Lastly, practice your handwriting skills and trace the word oval.

    9. Pentagon Shape Printable

    The pentagon is a five sided shape that you have probably seen more often than you think. Trace the shape and then color the pentagon items including a birdhouse, soccer ball and dog house. Our pentagon worksheet makes it fun to learn about these fascinating shapes.

    10. Rectangle Shape Printable

    Everyone knows the rectangle, but at first it can be difficult to separate it from a square. Learn more about rectangle shape with our rectangle worksheet. Trace the rectangle and then color the rectangle items including a suitcase, a book and a computer. Lastly, practice writing skills and trace the word rectangle.

    11. Semicircle Shape Printable

    The semicircle is a half circle. To practice this shape, trace it a few times and then color the semicircle items including the flower pot, umbrella and turtle shell.

    12. Square Shape Printable

    The square is a beautiful shape. I love how clean and equal it is. There are a lot of square shaped items. Color the postage stamp, the window and the gift box. The trace the word square.

    13. Star Shape Printable

    Did you know the star is a ten sided shape? Learn more about the star shape with our star printable worksheet. Trace the star and color the shooting star, starfish and star wand. Trace the word star to practice handwriting skills.

    14. Trapezoid Shape Printable

    The trapezoid shape is a more complex one with four sides but only one pair of sides are parallel. Practice and learn this shape by tracing it and then coloring the trapezoid shape items including a purse, popcorn container and lock. Trace the word trapezoid.

    15. Triangle Shape Printable

    Learn about the triangle with our triangle shape worksheet. Trace the triangle and color the triangle shapes including a watermelon slice, party hat and ice cream cone. Trace the word triangle.

    16. Shape Tracing Worksheet

    This shape worksheet is the freebie and is included in the Shape Worksheet Bundle! It consists of all 15 shapes (on one worksheet), the name of the shapes and the shape outline to practice tracing and coloring the shapes.

    Get your Shape Tracing Worksheets now:

    Get the Shapes

    Materials needed for the Shape Activities Worksheets:

    Good news, not many supplies are needed for the shape tracing worksheets.

    • Letter size paper (to print the shape printable)
    • Pencil, crayons, markers or colored pencils.

    If looking for a way to practice cutting shapes with scissors cut out the shapes to trace at the top of shapes worksheet.

    Also if you’re looking to trace over and over again print out the “Shapes to Trace” worksheet and use a laminator to laminate and make the shapes worksheet last. Use a dry erase marker to trace the shapes.

    What’s included in the 16 Shape Tracing Worksheets?

    The Shape Tracing Worksheets include 16 pages in 300 resolution (prints perfectly on letter size paper). The below are the worksheets you will receive if

    purchasing the Shapes Bundle.

    Side note: The worksheets in the image below are small. The images are low-resolution files that will not look good if printed. To get the full high-resolution (pixel perfect!) version of the worksheets, grab the Shapes Worksheets in Mrs. Merry’s Shop.


    Get your 16 Shape Tracing Worksheets now:

    This printable set can be bought instantly in Mrs. Merry’s Shop for only $5.00.
    Get the 16 Shapes Bundle

    Pin the Shapes Tracing Worksheets, please.

    Get the word out: If you liked these printable Shapes Worksheets and want to give us a little thanks please pin us on Pinterest. We love Pinterest pinning!

    If you prefer Facebook, give us a like or share our page.

    Get your FREE Shapes to Trace Worksheet

    Just want the freebie? Grab your Free Tracing Shapes Worksheet and start your lesson on all things shapes!

    Get the Freebie!

    Printables from are for personal use and classroom use only. Thanks and have a very merry day!

    What is a digital footprint?»> Digital trace. Definition and Description

    A digital footprint, sometimes called a digital shadow or electronic footprint, is the data you leave behind when you use the Internet. This data includes websites visited, emails sent and information entered in online forms. A digital footprint can be used to track the activities of a person and their devices on the Internet. Internet users actively or passively create their own digital footprint.

    What is a digital footprint?

    Every time you use the Internet, you leave behind an information trail called a digital footprint. Social media posts, newsletter signups, reviews, and online shopping contribute to expanding your digital footprint.

    The process of expanding your digital footprint is not always obvious, for example, websites can track activity by placing cookies on your device, and applications can read data without your knowledge. Once you give an organization access to your information, it will be able to sell or share it with third parties. In the worst case, your personal data could be compromised in a leak.

    The terms «active» and «passive» are often used in relation to digital footprints.

    Active digital footprint

    A user leaves an active digital footprint when they intentionally share information about themselves, such as posting on social media or posting on websites or online forums. If a user is logged into the website using a registered name or profile, all posts they post will constitute their active digital footprint. An active digital footprint is also created when filling out online forms, such as signing up for newsletters, or agreeing to accept cookies in the browser.

    Passive digital footprint»> A passive digital footprint is created when information about a user is collected without their knowledge. This happens, for example, when a website collects information about how many times users have visited the site, where those users are from, and their IP addresses. This is a hidden process that users may not be aware of. Another example of using passive footprint is for advertisers to analyze your likes, shares, and comments on social media for the purpose of profiling and displaying certain content to you.

    Why are digital footprints important?

    Digital footprints are important for the following reasons:

    • They are relatively permanent. Once information is made public (in whole or in part), such as a Facebook post, the author has little control over how it will be used by other people.
    • A digital footprint can reflect a person’s digital reputation, which is now considered as important as outside network reputation.
    • Before making hiring decisions, employers can check the digital footprints of their potential employees, especially their social media. Colleges and universities can verify the digital footprints of their prospective students before enrolling.
    • Messages and photographs posted on the Internet may be misinterpreted or altered, which may lead to inadvertent offense.
    • Content intended for a narrow group can spread to a wider circle and ruin relationships and friendships.
    • Cybercriminals can use your digital footprint for phishing purposes, to access your account, or to create false profiles based on your information.

    So it’s worth considering what your digital footprint says about you. Many are trying to manage their digital footprint by being careful about what they do online and controlling what data they potentially collect in the first place.

    Digital Footprint Examples»> An Internet user’s digital footprint can include hundreds of components. Below are just a few of the activities that increase your digital footprint.

    Shopping online

    • Shopping on e-commerce sites.
    • Sign up for coupons or create an account.
    • Downloading and using shopping apps.
    • Subscribe to brand news.

    Internet banking

    • Mobile banking application.
    • Purchase and sale of shares.
    • Subscription to financial publications and blogs.
    • Opening a credit card account.

    Social media

    • Use of social networks on computer and devices.
    • Signing in to other websites using a social network account.
    • Communication with friends and acquaintances.
    • Sharing information, data and photos with people you know.
    • Registration on a dating site or application.

    Reading news

    • Subscription to news publications on the Internet.
    • View articles in the news application.
    • Subscribe to newsletters.
    • Reposts of read articles and information.

    Health & Fitness

    • Use of fitness trackers.
    • Using apps to get medical help.
    • Registration of an email address in the gym.
    • Subscribe to health and fitness blogs.

    Protecting your digital footprint

    Since employers, universities, and others can verify your data online, it is recommended that you be careful about your digital footprint. The following are best practices for protecting your privacy and managing your online reputation.

    Use search engines to check your digital footprint

    Enter your name into a search engine. Enter your first and last name, use all spellings. If you have changed your name, search for both the current name and the old name. Viewing search results will give you an idea of ​​publicly available information about you. If any of the search results do not show you in the best light, you can contact the site administrators and see if they can remove this information. Setting up Google alerts is one way to track information by your name.

    Reduce the number of sources of information that mention your name

    For example, real estate websites and may contain more information about you than you would like. These sites may contain personal information such as phone number, address and age. If you are not satisfied with this, you can contact the website administrators and request that the information be removed.

    Limit the amount of data you provide

    Each time you provide personal information, you expand your digital footprint and also increase the likelihood that the company holding your data will be misused or hacked, which could result in your data being exposed to attackers. Therefore, before filling out the form, consider whether it is worth it. Are there other ways to get information or a service without providing personal data?

    Check privacy settings

    Social media privacy settings allow you to control who sees your posts. Check if these settings are set to the level you are comfortable with. For example, Facebook allows you to limit the visibility of posts to friends and create special lists of who can see certain posts. However, keep in mind that privacy settings only protect you on a particular social network.

    Avoid revealing too much information on social media

    Social networks make it easy to communicate with people, but provoke the disclosure of unnecessary information. Consider whether to include your location, travel plans, or other personal information. Do not include your phone number and email address in the Information section of social networks. It is also not recommended to like your bank, healthcare provider, pharmacy, and other organizations, as this can point cybercriminals to your important accounts.

    Avoid insecure websites

    Make sure you are transacting on a secure website. Its web address must start with https://, not http://; the s stands for «secure» and indicates that the site has a security certificate. A lock icon should also be displayed to the left of the address bar. Do not disclose confidential information, especially payment information, on insecure sites.

    Do not provide personal data when using public Wi-Fi networks

    A public Wi-Fi network is less secure than your private network: you don’t know who set it up or who can access it. Avoid providing personal information when using public Wi-Fi networks.

    Delete old accounts

    One way to reduce your digital footprint is to delete old accounts, such as unused social media profiles and subscriptions to newsletters you don’t care about. Removing unused accounts reduces the chance of data leakage.

    Create strong passwords and use a password manager

    A strong password helps keep you safe online. A strong password is long—at least 12 characters long, ideally more, and contains a combination of uppercase and lowercase letters, symbols, and numbers. The more complex your password, the more difficult it is to crack. Using a password manager allows you to create, store and manage all your passwords with a single secure account. Passwords must be kept secret, not disclosed to anyone, and not recorded anywhere. It is recommended that you do not use the same password for all accounts, and that you change passwords regularly.

    Keep your medical records confidential

    Follow data protection regulations and review your medical records regularly. Identity thieves target medical and financial information. If criminals use your personal information to obtain medical services on your behalf, their medical records may be merged with yours.

    Do not log in with Facebook

    Logging in to websites and applications with Facebook is quite convenient. However, each time you access a third-party website using your Facebook credentials, you are allowing the company that owns the website to obtain your Facebook data, which puts your personal information at potential risk.

    Keep your software up to date

    Outdated software may contain many digital footprints. If you do not install the latest updates, cybercriminals can gain access to this information. Using vulnerabilities in software, they can easily gain access to devices and data. Regular software updates help prevent this, as outdated software is more vulnerable to malicious attacks.

    Set up the use of your mobile device

    Set a password for your mobile device so that if you lose it, no one but you can access it. Please read the user agreement when installing applications. For many applications, it describes what information it collects and what it can be used for. Applications may collect personal data such as email, location, and online activities. Please make sure you are comfortable with the information it collects before using the app.

    Evaluate materials before publishing

    Based on your publications and comments on the Internet, as well as on the reviews of other people, an opinion about you is formed. Some aspects of your digital footprint, such as uploaded photos, blog comments, YouTube videos, and Facebook posts, may not show you the way you want. Create a positive digital footprint by only posting what creates the image you want.

    If hacked, take immediate action

    If you suspect that your data may have been compromised as a result of a hack, take immediate action. For financial losses, report the violation to the bank or credit card company. Change any passwords that may have been exposed. If the compromised password was used for other accounts, change it everywhere.

    Use a VPN

    Using a virtual private network (VPN) helps protect your digital footprint. A VPN masks your IP address, making it virtually impossible for anyone to track your online activities. This improves your online privacy and prevents websites from setting cookies that track your browsing history. Kaspersky Secure Connection allows you to establish a secure connection between your device and an Internet server so that no one can monitor or access the transmitted data.

    Related articles:

    • How to stay private online when your business and personal goals overlap
    • How to hide your IP address
    • How to set up a secure home network
    • What is a VPN? How VPNs work and types of VPNs

    Types of blood traces by form and mechanism of formation

    Various classifications of blood traces are known to forensic medicine and forensic science. Basically, the authors tend to divide these traces into elementary and complex ones.

    When describing traces at the scene, an elementary classification of traces is usually used. It includes single traces that provide information about the physical factors that formed them and depend on the properties of the surface.

    The first element of the classification are puddles . The formation of puddles is a consequence of the outflow of blood spreading over a non-absorbent surface that does not have a steep slope.

    Particularly large puddles form directly at the site of profusely bleeding injuries, but it is not uncommon for puddles to form also after the victim has been moved to another location.

    When examining and describing puddles in the inspection report of the scene, attention should be paid to their edges and the condition of the surrounding surface. Clarity in the outline of the edges and the absence of peripheral splashes characterize the gradual outflow and spread of blood. Multiple splashes and radiating branches indicate that splashing has taken place.

    After a sufficiently dense blood clot has formed in a puddle, it will retain a shiny surface only if the puddle itself and the objects that are in it are inviolable. Any mechanical defects leave distinct traces on the convolution. The examination protocol should describe the presence or absence of such injuries (traces) and list all those items that are associated (soldered) with coagulated blood. This data may influence the development of versions of the case.

    Impregnation , as a type of blood trace, is found on loose soil, textile and other porous surfaces. The forensic significance of these traces lies in the possibility of establishing the place where the bleeding occurred, and also allows us to assert the possibility of contact of certain objects with bleeding objects or a pool of blood.

    Impregnation can spread in all directions of the material, and these traces remain much better than, for example, pools of blood.

    Impregnations found on multilayer textile objects provide valuable information. By the location of the individual elements of the traces, it is possible to determine the direction of blood seepage, to reliably restore the original arrangement of the material layers, the position of clothing, and the posture of the corpse.

    Leaks , being a trace of blood, are formed when liquid blood enters the gaps between two closely spaced surfaces, where they are drawn under the influence of surface tension. This type of blood trail differs from others primarily in its secrecy. The streaks are not conspicuous, and therefore, when the criminal tries to destroy the available evidence, it is the streaks that remain preserved and can be used to solve crimes. Finding such traces is possible only with a skillful search. They should be looked for in the crevices of furniture, floors, under baseboards, on separate items of clothing of both the victim and the suspect in the crime.

    Another kind of blood marks — streaks . They are formed when blood gets on steep or inclined surfaces, when a complex physico-chemical interaction occurs between the liquid and the carrier surface. The consequence of this phenomenon is the obligatory division of blood into narrow strips, always directed downwards. The parameters of these bands depend on various factors — the amount of blood, the angle of inclination of the surface, and the degree of its wettability. On even planes, blood streaks are straight, on uneven planes they take on the character of a tortuous line.

    For an investigation, it is always essential to be able to establish exactly how this or that object moved in the dynamics of the event under study, while the formation of streaks on it has not yet been completed. The dynamic characteristics of streaks are very important for the investigation, because in their direction, you can get important forensically significant information.

    Frequent in investigative practice are questions to the forensic expert about the posture of the victim at the time of causing him this or that injury. The answer is usually based on the fact that blood streaks on the body and clothing give grounds for determining the position of the latter only after the onset of external bleeding. The duration of the period of time before the onset of external bleeding is determined by the forensic expert based on the results of the autopsy of the victim, as well as studying his medical history, if any.

    Drops and splashes can also be traces of blood. Distinguishing drops and splashes is very important for the analysis and correct interpretation of the incident under study.

    The size characteristic of free-falling drops depends on the surface area of ​​their separation and the height of the fall. When these parameters are constant, traces of the same size are formed. Experiments have shown that the smallest drops of blood are obtained when falling from the tip of a small blade and from a height of 5 cm. They form traces with a diameter of 0.7 cm. The largest diameter of traces of blood drops flowing from a significant surface at a fall height of 3 meters reaches 3 cm This experiment indicates that traces of freely falling drops can be reliably recognized when they are found in the form of a group of elements of the same type, the diameter of which is greater than 0.7 cm.

    Spatters of blood, which were formed even at the same time in one group, always have different sizes, because they come off from different parts of the surface, experience different air resistance in the center and along the edges of the group, and some of them are still crushed in flight from collision. The smallest of them are microscopic in size, and the largest are always smaller than the drops that separate from the same object — this is naturally due to the above differences between their inherent initial velocities.

    Differentiation of single similar traces is possible only by additional features: for splashes — by location above the maximum possible level of blood release or in the direction of narrowed ends horizontally or upwards, for drops — by the presence of radial jagged edges. The absence of such signs serves as a basis for refusing to establish the mechanism for the formation of single traces; they should be called spots.

    Traces of blood from a fall from a height — drops and splashes. The drop falls at a right angle or close to a right angle. And depending on how high it falls, it has a certain shape:

    less than 25 cm — even and sharp edges

    25-50 cm — wide margins

    50-100 cm — finely serrated edges

    · more than 100 cm — the drop breaks, and there are several small ones near the large fragment.

    Sometimes allows you to solve the question in what position the body was when the damage was applied.

    Splashes are in the form of exclamation marks, with an acute angle facing the direction of the drop. It falls on the surface at an acute angle.

    If the object was moving slowly and the surface was sloping, the tracks will be oval, with one or more additional rays in the direction of motion.

    If the height of the fall increases, the diameter of the track increases, teeth form at the edges, as well as peripheral traces of small splashes. The viscosity of the blood is directly related to the degree of their severity. If traces of the same type in their characteristics, in the form of falling drops, are found at the scene of the incident, this makes it possible to trace the path of a person or animal with bleeding injuries, including with an increase in the rate of their movement and stops.

    A more complicated picture occurs when a person or animal has a wound on a non-protruding part of the body. In this case, drops come off at the level of the wound, others roll down the body or clothing and come off at different levels.

    These motion path displays combine trails of droplets of varying size, structure and spatter. Their combination is called traces of rolling drops.

    Blood splatter is one of the most common traces. They are the most dynamic in terms of the mechanism of emergence and formation of most of them. Most often, this coincides with the culmination of the commission of a crime. A perpendicular fall on a trace-perceiving object forms traces of a round shape from splashes, while moving with the greatest inclination — oval, after approaching the object at an acute angle, they resemble an exclamation mark. The narrowed part of such a trace and its point element are always directed along the direction of blood flow.

    In groups of splash marks, elements of all three of the above forms may occur, since flying blood particles have different kinetic energy, as a result of which they move along different trajectories and meet the surface at different angles.

    Complex traces of blood are divided into three types of splashes: in case of damage to arterial vessels — spouting; from waving a bloody object and from hitting a bloody surface.

    Use a magnifying glass to inspect the scene and any surfaces that may be splashed. spatter marks sometimes have a diameter smaller than the typographic dot. The examination area should be well lit.

    Blots are superficial deposits of blood on various objects. This general term refers to smears and impressions. The difference between these types of elementary traces is based on the different mechanism of their occurrence.

    Smear results from sliding contact of objects between which there was some amount of blood. Smears usually have an indefinite shape and sizes of various limits.

    A variation of smears are traces of drawing, which are formed during the sliding movement of a bloody massive object. Very often footprints of the criminal can be found next to the drag marks.

    Imprints are usually formed as a result of static contact of a bloody object with a flat surface capable of absorbing traces of blood. To some extent, these traces display signs of the external structure of the trace-forming object. This is a good basis for identification and trace expert studies.

    For the disclosure and investigation of crimes, prints left by bloodied fingers, palms, and other parts of the human body are very important, allowing identification of a person.

    When describing traces of blood in the report of the inspection of the scene, in cases of doubt, the traces should be indicated by the name “brown spots similar to blood”. The description of stains should be made according to their location, color, quantity, relative position, shape, size, edge structure, layer uniformity and impregnation intensity.

    Detection of well-preserved traces of blood on trace-receptive surfaces is not difficult. Examination with the naked eye, with a magnifying glass and in good light allows them to be recorded objectively in the protocol.

    Depending on the conditions for the formation of traces of blood, the surfaces on which they formed, and other things, these traces have a different color scheme. Fresh tracks are bright red, but later they darken and become brown-brown. Old blood stains are black. The rotting of the blood gives it a greenish tint.

    One or another trace-perceiving object can make it difficult to detect a trace of blood. It is most difficult to do this on dark objects, as well as objects similar in color to traces of blood (dark, red, brown).

    Dirt, rust also make it difficult to detect traces of blood, which increases the value of preliminary samples.

    Attempts by the criminal to destroy the traces of the crime (washing out, erasing the traces) create significant difficulties in detecting blood stains. Under these conditions, only a thorough examination can bring positive results, during which attention should be paid to places where traces of blood could go unnoticed.

    Slots in the floor, parquet, plinth, ventilation holes, furniture legs, door handles, cabinets, etc. are subject to mandatory inspection in the premises. Also, in the premises, places where the offender could wash his hands, weapons of crime, clothes should be inspected. These are sinks, bathrooms, basins, buckets, etc.

    Special rules should also be observed when inspecting the instrument of crime, other items that could be in the blood. Work with these objects should be carried out in rubber gloves, with all precautions so as not to lose the traces on the object.

    If the object of inspection is rather bulky and multi-element, in order to detect traces of blood, it is necessary first of all to pay attention to the protruding parts. This rule is most applicable to vehicle inspection.

    Finding traces of blood facilitates the use of so-called preliminary samples, the simplest of which, and perhaps the most accessible, is hydrogen peroxide. The use of this chemical compound is based on the catalase properties of blood. In the presence of blood and other objects containing catalase, hydrogen peroxide decomposes into water and oxygen. Bubbles of escaping oxygen form a highly visible foam.

    Apply a small amount of hydrogen peroxide to areas of the object where there is a suspicious stain. If the result is positive, foaming is observed. Simplicity also has significant disadvantages. If the trace-receptive object is moistened, then the effect of hydrogen peroxide on some blood proteins will give a low sensitivity of the sample.

    To date, the following tests for the detection of traces of blood are most common:

    1. Reaction with HemoFAN. Apply a strip of HemoFAN reagent (pre-moistened with water) to the edge of the suspected blood spot. A blue coloration of the strip is considered a positive result of the reaction.

    2. Reaction with Voskoboinikov’s reagent. Reagent contains 10 parts citric acid, 5 parts barium peroxide, 2 parts benzidine. One part of the mixture is dissolved in 10 parts of distilled water.

    A small piece of cotton wool wound around a match is moistened with the reagent and carefully applied to the edge of the spot to be examined. Blue staining is a positive reaction to the presence of blood. The recommendation should be followed: the entire stain should not be treated, as this will make it impossible to further study the blood on the stain.

    3. Reaction with luminal. An aqueous solution of individual components — 3-aminophthalhydrazide (the so-called luminal) and sodium carbonate in a ratio of 0.14:0.02 — is prepared at the inspection site. Before use, 100 ml of 3% hydrogen peroxide is added to 1 liter of solution.

    The use of the reagent is recommended for inspecting hard-to-reach places, large rooms, attics, basements, cellars, and if no traces of blood are detected by other methods.

    In a previously darkened room, the suspicious surface is sprayed with luminol. The emerging glow (50-65 s) quickly disappears, it indicates the possible presence of blood. In the presence of metals, a false glow may occur. The impact of luminol on the blood significantly affects the results of the subsequent expert study, so the room is treated with small areas and, as soon as a positive reaction (characteristic glow) is obtained, the use of luminol is stopped.

    There are other ways to detect traces of blood.

    An important and effective physical method for detecting traces of blood is the use of ultraviolet rays. The most convenient in this case is the use of a portable fluorescent illuminator. With its help, it is quite effective to detect and identify traces suspicious of blood. Inspection of the object should be carried out in a darkened room. The impact of ultraviolet rays on traces of blood does not cause a fluorescent glow, and they look like dark “velvety” spots against the background of the surrounding surface, which is always fluorescent to some extent. Synthetic fabrics give a particularly bright glow. It should be borne in mind that, in addition to blood, many substances and their traces (rust, aniline, some salts) have the ability to absorb ultraviolet rays.

    Date added: 2021-07-22; views: 153; ORDER WRITING WORK

    Creating and Modifying Brushes in Adobe Photoshop

    1. Photoshop
    2. User Guide

    3. Introduction to Photoshop
      1. Dream about it. Do it.
      2. What’s New in Photoshop
      3. Editing the first photo
      4. Create documents
      5. Photoshop | Frequently Asked Questions
      6. Photoshop 9 system requirements0028
      7. Transfer of presets, operations and settings
      8. Introduction to Photoshop
    4. Photoshop and other Adobe products and services
      1. Working with Illustrator artwork in Photoshop
      2. Working with Photoshop files in InDesign
      3. Substance 3D Materials for Photoshop
      4. Photoshop and Adobe Stock
      5. Working with the built-in Capture extension in Photoshop
      6. Creative Cloud Libraries
      7. Creative Cloud Libraries in Photoshop
      8. Working in Photoshop using the Touch Bar
      9. Net and guides
      10. Creating transactions
      11. Cancellation and transaction history
    5. Photoshop on iPad
      1. Photoshop on iPad | General questions
      2. Introduction to the working environment
      3. System requirements | Photoshop on iPad
      4. Creating, opening and exporting documents
      5. Adding photos
      6. Working with layers
      7. Drawing and painting with brushes
      8. Selecting areas and adding masks
      9. Retouch compositions
      10. Working with adjustment layers
      11. Adjusting the key of a composition using the Curves layer
      12. Applying transform operations
      13. Cropping and rotating compositions
      14. Rotate, pan, zoom and restore canvas
      15. Working with text layers
      16. Working with Photoshop and Lightroom
      17. Getting missing fonts in Photoshop on iPad
      18. Japanese text in Photoshop on iPad
      19. Application parameter management
      20. Touch shortcuts and gestures
      21. Key combinations
      22. Image resizing
      23. Live stream your creative process in Photoshop on iPad
      24. Correcting imperfections with the Healing Brush
      25. Creating brushes in Capture and using them in Photoshop
      26. Working with Camera Raw files
      27. Creating and using smart objects
      28. Adjusting the exposure of images with the Dodge and Burn tools
    6. Photoshop Web Application Beta
      1. Frequently Asked Questions | Photoshop Web App Beta
      2. Working environment overview
      3. System requirements | Photoshop Web App Beta
      4. Keyboard shortcuts | Photoshop 9 Web App Beta0028
      5. Supported file formats | Photoshop Web Application Beta
      6. Opening and working with cloud documents
      7. Collaboration with stakeholders
      8. Limited editing options for cloud documents
    7. Cloud Documents
      1. Photoshop Cloud Documents | Frequently Asked Questions
      2. Photoshop Cloud Documents | Workflow Questions
      3. Working with and managing cloud documents in Photoshop
      4. Cloud storage update for Photoshop
      5. Unable to create or save cloud document
      6. Troubleshooting Photoshop cloud documents
      7. Collection of cloud document sync logs
      8. Sharing and editing cloud documents
      9. File sharing and commenting in the application
    8. Working environment
      1. Working environment basics
      2. Learn faster with the What’s New panel in Photoshop
      3. Create documents
      4. Working in Photoshop using the Touch Bar
      5. Tool gallery
      6. Performance settings
      7. Using tools
      8. Touch gestures
      9. Touch gesture capabilities and customizable workspaces
      10. Overview versions of technology
      11. Metadata and comments
      12. Default key combinations
      13. Touch gestures and customizable workspaces
      14. Putting Photoshop images in other applications
      15. Installations
      16. Default key combinations
      17. Rulers
      18. Show or hide non-printing auxiliaries
      19. Specifying columns for the image
      20. Cancellation and transaction history
      21. Panels and menus
      22. File placement
      23. Positioning of elements with referencing
      24. Positioning with the ruler tool
      25. Presets
      26. Customizing keyboard shortcuts
      27. Net and guides
    9. Web, screen, and application content development
      1. Photoshop for design
      2. Artboards
      3. View on device
      4. Copy CSS from layers
      5. Dividing web pages into fragments
      6. HTML options for snippets
      7. Changing the arrangement of fragments
      8. Working with web graphics
      9. Create web photo galleries
    10. Understanding images and color
      1. Resizing images
      2. Working with raster and vector images
      3. Image size and resolution
      4. Importing images from cameras and scanners
      5. Creating, opening and importing images
      6. Image viewer
      7. «Invalid JPEG marker» error | Opening images
      8. Viewing multiple images
      9. Customizing color palettes and color swatches
      10. HDR images
      11. Image color matching
      12. Converting between color modes
      13. Color modes
      14. Erase sub-images
      15. Blend Modes
      16. Choice of colors
      17. Making changes to indexed color tables
      18. Image information
      19. Distortion filters not available
      20. Color details
      21. Color and monochrome corrections using channels
      22. Selecting colors in the Color and Swatches panels
      23. Sample
      24. Color mode (or picture mode)
      25. Shade
      26. Adding a color mode change to an operation
      27. Add swatches from HTML CSS and SVG files
      28. Bit depth and settings
    11. Layers
      1. Understanding Layers
      2. Reversible editing
      3. Create and manage layers and groups
      4. Selecting, grouping and linking layers
      5. Putting images into frames
      6. Opacity and layering
      7. Layer masks
      8. Applying Smart Filters
      9. Layer compositions
      10. Move, arrange and lock layers
      11. Masking layers with vector masks
      12. Manage layers and groups
      13. Layer Effects and Styles
      14. Editing layer masks
      15. Extract resources
      16. Display layers with clipping masks
      17. Generation of graphic resources from layers
      18. Working with Smart Objects
      19. Blend Modes
      20. Combining several fragments into one image
      21. Combining images with Auto Layer
      22. Alignment and distribution of layers
      23. Copy CSS from layers
      24. Load selections based on layer boundaries or layer mask
      25. See-through to show the contents of other layers
      26. Layer
      27. Mixing
      28. Composite images
      29. Background
    12. Selections
      1. Select and Mask workspace
      2. Quick area selection
      3. Getting Started with Selections
      4. Selecting with the Marquee toolbox
      5. Selecting with the Lasso tools
      6. Selecting a color range in an image
      7. Pixel highlight setting
      8. Convert between contours and selection boundaries
      9. Channel Basics
      10. Moving, copying and deleting selected pixels
      11. Creating a temporary quick mask
      12. Saving selections and alpha channel masks
      13. Selecting focus areas in an image
      14. Duplication, splitting and merging of channels
      15. Channel calculation
      16. Allotment
      17. Bounding box
    13. Image corrections
      1. Perspective distortion
      2. Blur reduction due to camera movement
      3. Healing Brush Tool Examples
      4. Export color lookup tables
      5. Image sharpness and blur correction
      6. Understanding color grading
      7. Applying the Brightness/Contrast setting
      8. Shadow and highlight detail correction
      9. Correction «Levels»
      10. Hue and saturation correction
      11. Juiciness correction
      12. Adjusting the color saturation in image areas
      13. Quick tone correction
      14. Applying special color effects to images
      15. Image enhancement with color balance correction
      16. HDR images
      17. View histograms and pixel values ​​
      18. Image color matching
      19. Crop and straighten photographs
      20. Converting a color image to black and white
      21. Adjustment and fill layers
      22. Curves correction
      23. Blend Modes
      24. Target Imaging for Press
      25. Color and tone correction with Levels and Curves eyedroppers
      26. HDR Exposure and Toning Compensation
      27. Filter
      28. Blur
      29. Lighten or darken image areas
      30. Selective color correction
      31. Replacing object colors
    14. Adobe Camera Raw
      1. System Requirements Camera Raw
      2. What’s New in Camera Raw
      3. Introduction to Camera Raw
      4. Creating panoramas
      5. Supported lenses
      6. Camera Raw Vignetting, Grain, and Haze Removal
      7. Default key combinations
      8. Automatic perspective correction in Camera Raw
      9. Reversible editing in Camera Raw
      10. Camera Raw Radial Filter Tool
      11. Manage Camera Raw settings
      12. Processing, saving and opening images in Camera Raw
      13. Improving Images with Camera Raw’s Improved Spot Remover
      14. Rotating, cropping and modifying images
      15. Camera Raw color correction
      16. Function overview | Adobe Camera Raw | 2018 releases
      17. Overview of new features
      18. Processing versions in Camera Raw
      19. Making local adjustments in Camera Raw
    15. Fixing and restoring images
      1. Removing objects from photos using Content-Aware Fill
      2. Content-aware patching and relocation
      3. Retouching and fixing photos
      4. Image Distortion and Noise Correction
      5. Basic troubleshooting steps to solve most problems
    16. Image transformation
      1. Object transformation
      2. Crop, rotate and canvas adjustment
      3. Crop and straighten photographs
      4. Creating and editing panoramic images
      5. Deforming images, shapes and contours
      6. Perspective
      7. Using the Plastic filter
      8. Content-aware scale
      9. Transform images, shapes and paths
      10. Deformation
      11. Transformation
      12. Panorama
    17. Drawing and painting
      1. Drawing symmetrical ornaments
      2. Options for drawing a rectangle and changing the stroke
      3. Drawing details
      4. Drawing and editing shapes
      5. Paint tools
      6. Creating and modifying brushes
      7. Blend Modes
      8. Adding color to contours
      9. Edit contours
      10. Painting with mix brush
      11. Brush Presets
      12. Gradients
      13. Gradient interpolation
      14. Fill and stroke selections, layers, and paths
      15. Drawing with the pen tool group
      16. Pattern making
      17. Creating a pattern with the Pattern Builder filter
      18. Circuit control
      19. Managing pattern libraries and presets
      20. Drawing with pen tablet
      21. Creating textured brushes
      22. Adding dynamic elements to brushes
      23. Gradient
      24. Draw stylized strokes with the Artistic Archive Brush
      25. Drawing with pattern
      26. Synchronizing presets across multiple devices
    18. Text
      1. Adding and editing text
      2. Universal text editor
      3. Working with OpenType SVG 9 fonts0028
      4. Character formatting
      5. Paragraph formatting
      6. Creating text effects
      7. Text editing
      8. Leading and letter spacing
      9. Font for Arabic and Hebrew
      10. Fonts
      11. Troubleshooting fonts
      12. Asian text
      13. Creating text
      14. Text Engine error when using the Type tool in Photoshop | Windows 8
    19. Video and animation
      1. Video editing in Photoshop
      2. Editing video and animation layers
      3. Introduction to video and animation
      4. Video and animation preview
      5. Drawing frames in video layers
      6. Import video files and image sequences
      7. Creating frame animations
      8. Creative Cloud 3D Animation (Preview)
      9. Creating timeline animations
      10. Creating images for video
    20. Filters and effects
      1. Using the Liquify filter
      2. Using Blur Gallery group effects
      3. Filter basics
      4. Filter effects reference
      5. Adding lighting effects
      6. Using the Adaptive Wide Angle filter
      7. Oil Paint Filter
      8. Layer Effects and Styles
      9. Application of specific filters
      10. Image area feathering
    21. Saving and exporting
      1. Saving files in Photoshop
      2. Export files to Photoshop
      3. Supported file formats
      4. Saving files in other graphic formats
      5. Moving projects between Photoshop and Illustrator
      6. Saving and exporting video and animation
      7. Saving PDF files
      8. Digimarc copyright protection
    22. Printing
      1. Printing 3D objects
      2. Printing with Photoshop
      3. Printing and color management
      4. Checklists and PDF presentations
      5. Print photos in a new image layout
      6. Spot color printing
      7. Duplexes
      8. Printing images on a printing press
      9. Photoshop Color Enhancement
      10. Printing troubleshooting | Photoshop
    23. Automation
      1. Create activities
      2. Creation of data-driven images
      3. Scenarios
      4. File batch processing
      5. Operation playback and management
      6. Adding conditional operations
      7. About actions and the Actions panel
      8. Recording tools in operations
      9. Adding a color mode change to an operation
      10. Photoshop UI Development Kit for Plugins and Scripts
    24. Color Management
      1. Understanding Color Management
      2. Accurate color assurance
      3. Color settings
      4. Working with color profiles
      5. Color management of documents for viewing on the web
      6. Color management for printing documents
      7. Color management of imported images
      8. Perform proofing
    25. Content authenticity
      1. Learn more about content credentials
      2. Identity and origin of NFT tokens
      3. Connecting accounts for creative attribution
    26. 3D objects and technical images
      1. 3D in Photoshop | Common questions about deprecated 3D features
      2. Creative Cloud 3D Animation (Preview)
      3. Printing 3D objects
      4. 3D drawing
      5. 3D Panel Enhancement | Photoshop
      6. 3D Concepts and Tools
      7. Rendering and saving 3D objects
      8. Creating 3D objects and animations
      9. Image stacks
      10. 3D graphics workflow
      11. Measurements
      12. DICOM files
      13. Photoshop and MATLAB
      14. Counting objects in an image
      15. Merging and converting 3D objects
      16. Editing 3D textures
      17. HDR Exposure and Toning Compensation
      18. 3D panel settings

    You can create brushes that apply paint to images in a variety of ways. You can select an existing preset brush, a brush tip shape, or create a unique brush tip based on part of an image. To determine how the paint is applied, you need to set options in the Brush Settings panel.

    Brushes with dynamic nibs do not support painting symmetry and pattern preview. Choose a regular brush to paint with symmetry and patterns.

    The Brush Settings panel allows you to modify existing brushes and develop new custom brushes. The Brush Settings panel contains brush tip options that control how paint is applied to an image. The Brush Stroke Preview window at the bottom of the panel shows how the brush strokes will look at the current brush settings.

    Brush Settings panel (left) and Brushes panel (right)

    A. Locked/Unlocked B. Selected brush tip C. Brush stroke preview D. Brushes panel

    Display the Brushes panel and
    brush settings

    1. Choose Window > Brush Options. You can also select a tool for drawing, erasing, toning, or focusing. Then click on the button located on the left side of the options bar.

    2. Select a set of options on the left side of the panel. Options,
      available for installation are displayed on the right side of the panel.

      Check the box to the left of a set of options to enable or disable options without viewing them.

    Many free and purchased brushes can be imported into Photoshop, such as brush sets from Kyle. Do the following.

    1. From the Brushes panel pop-up menu, choose More Brushes. You can also right-click a brush in the brush list in the Brushes panel and choose More Brushes from the shortcut menu.

    2. Download the brush pack. For example, download Kyle’s Megapack.

    3. With Photoshop open, double-click the downloaded ABR file.

      The added brushes are displayed in the Brushes panel.

    You can also use the Import Brushes option in the Brushes panel pop-up menu to locate the downloaded ABR file and open it. The downloaded brushes are then added to the Brushes panel.

    Getting Started with Advanced Custom Brushes

    Kyle T Webster

    1. Using
      With any selection tool, select the area of ​​the image that you want to use as a custom brush.
      The brush shape can be up to 2500 by 2500 pixels.

      Hardness cannot be adjusted while drawing
      brushes «according to the model.» To create a brush with hard edges, choose a value
      0 for Feather. To create a brush with soft edges, increase the value of the parameter

      If a color image is selected, the brush tip image
      converted to grayscale. To determine the brush print is not
      any layer masks applied to the image are affected.

    2. Select item
      Edit > Define Brush….

    3. Name the brush and click OK.

    1. Select a drawing, erasing, toning, or focusing tool. Then choose Window > Brush Options.

    2. In the Brush Settings panel, select a brush tip shape, or click Brush Presets to select an existing preset.

    3. Select the typo brush shape on the left and adjust its settings.

    4. To set other brush options, note
      to the following sections:

      • Adding dynamic elements to brushes
      • Set the scatter value for the stroke
      • Creating textured brushes
      • Set the parameters for dynamic brush change
      • Drawing with graphics tablet
    5. To lock the brush tip shape attributes (keep them
      while selecting a different brush set), click the lock icon . To
      to unlock the brush tip, click the lock icon .

    6. To save the brush for later use, select New Brush Preset
      from the Brush panel menu.

      To permanently save a new brush or transfer it
      other users need to save the brush as part of a brush set.
      Choose Save Brushes from the Brush Presets panel menu and
      save the new set or replace the existing set. If a
      brushes will be reloaded or replaced in the Brush Presets panel before the new brush is saved in the preset,
      this brush may be lost.

    The following options can be set for standard brushes in the Brush Settings panel.

    The size

    Controls the size of the brush. Set the value in pixels or drag the slider.

    Brush strokes with different diameters

    Use sample size

    Resets the brush to its original diameter. This option is available
    only if the brushprint shape was created using pixel sampling in

    Reflect X

    Changes the direction of the brush tip along the axis X .

    Mirroring the brush tip along the x-axis

    A. Brush tip at default position B. Flip X selected C. Flip X and Flip Y selected

    Reflect Y

    Changes the direction of the brush tip along the Y axis .

    Mirror brush tip Y

    A. Brush tip at default position B. Flip Y selected C. Flip Y and Flip X selected


    the angle by which the long axis of the oval or pattern brush is rotated with respect to
    to the horizontal. Enter a value in degrees or drag the horizontal
    axis in view.

    Angled brushes create a sharp stroke

    The form

    the ratio between the short and long axes of the brush. Enter value
    percentage or drag the points to the viewport. A value of 100% indicates
    a round brush, a value of 0% to a linear brush, and intermediate values
    define oval brushes.

    Shape Correction to Compress the Shape of a Brush Mark


    the size of the hard center of the brush. Enter a number or use the slider to
    set a value that is a percentage of the brush diameter. Possibility to change the hardness of the brushes according to the sample

    Brush strokes with different hardness values ​​


    Controls the distance between brush marks in a stroke. To change the spacing, enter a number or use the slider to set a value that is a percentage of the brush’s diameter. If this option is not selected, the intervals are determined by the speed at which the cursor moves.

    Gaps appear in brush strokes as a result of increasing spacing

    When using a prepared brush, press the «[» key to decrease the width of the brush and the «]» key to increase the width. When using the Hard Round, Soft Round, and Calligraphy brushes, press the Shift+[» keys to decrease the brush hardness, and press the Shift+»]» keys to increase the brush hardness.

    Bristle tips allow precise bristle characteristics for
    creating highly realistic and natural strokes. You can set the following options in the Brushes panel:
    brush print shapes.


    Defines the overall appearance of the bristles.


    Controls the overall density of the bristles.


    Changes the bristle length.


    Controls the width of individual bristles.


    Controls bristle flexibility. At low values, the shape of the brush is easily deformed.

    Change the hardness setting to make mouse strokes look different.


    Controls the distance between brush marks in a stroke.
    To change the distance, enter a number or use the slider to specify
    percentage of brush diameter. If this option is not selected, the intervals are determined
    cursor movement speed.


    Specifies the angle of the brush tip when drawing with the mouse.

    brush preview

    Shows the brush tip at the above settings, as well as the current pressure and stroke angle. Click in the preview window to see the brush from different angles. Photoshop 21.0.3 (January 2020 release) no longer has a brush preview window.

    Brushes with a washable tip, reminiscent of pencils or crayons, the brush wears naturally as you paint. The degree of wear can be assessed in the live preview of the brush tip, which is located in the upper left corner of the image.

    The size

    Controls the size of the brush. Set the value in pixels or drag the slider.


    Wear management. Set the value as a percentage or drag the slider.


    Tip shape control. Choose from a variety of tip options.

    sharp tip

    Restore the original sharpness of the tip.


    Controls the distance between brush marks in a stroke.
    To change the distance, enter a number or use the slider to specify
    percentage of brush diameter. If this option is not selected, the intervals are determined
    cursor movement speed.

    brush preview

    Shows the brush tip at the above settings, as well as the current pressure and stroke angle. Click in the preview window to see the brush from different angles. Photoshop 21.0.3 (January 2020 release) no longer has a brush preview window.

    Airbrush tips replicate aerosol cans with 3D cone spray. With the pen, you can adjust the span of the airbrush by changing the pressure of the pen.

    The size

    Controls the size of the brush. Set the value in pixels or drag the slider.


    Controls the size of the hard center of the brush.


    Controls the distortion applied to paint splatter.


    Paint drop grain control.

    Spray size

    Paint drop size control.

    Spray volume

    Ink drop control.


    Drop spacing control. When this option is not selected, the intervals are determined by the speed at which the cursor moves.

    brush preview

    Shows the brush tip at the above settings, as well as the current pressure and stroke angle. Click in the preview window to see the brush from different angles. Photoshop 21.0.3 (January 2020 release) no longer has a brush preview window.

    The brush position options let you achieve pen-like effects and control the angle and position of the brush.

    Tilt X

    The angle of the brush from left to right.

    Tilt Y

    Wrist angle from front to back.


    Bristle angle.


    Brush pressure on canvas.

    Activate the override options to keep the brush position static.


    Adds additional
    random settings to individual brush tips. This option is the most efficient
    applied to soft brush nibs (brush nibs that contain values ​​corresponding to gray).

    wet edges

    Causes buildup of paint along
    the edges of a brushstroke, creating an effect similar to painting with watercolor paint.


    Applies gradual tones to an image, simulating traditional airbrush painting techniques. The Airbrush option in the Brushes panel corresponds to the Airbrush option in the Options Bar.


    Creates smoother curves in brush strokes. This option is
    most effective when drawing quickly with a pen, but it
    may cause a slight delay when drawing strokes.

    texture protection

    the same pattern and scale to all brush settings that have a texture.
    Select this option to simulate a permanent canvas texture when painting with
    numerous textured brush tips.

    Photoshop intelligently smoothes brush strokes. Simply enter a value (0-100) for Anti-Aliasing in the Options Bar when working with one of the following tools: Brush, Pencil, Mix Brush, or Eraser. A value of 0 corresponds to anti-aliasing in previous versions of Photoshop. The higher the value, the more intelligent smoothing is applied to your strokes.

    There are several smart smoothing modes. Click the gear icon () to enable one or more of the following modes:

    Line-following mode

    Drawing is carried out only when the string is taut. Moving the cursor within the smoothing radius leaves no traces.

    Stroke following

    Allows you to continue drawing after the cursor when the stroke is paused. When this mode is disabled, drawing stops immediately after the cursor stops.

    Follow to the end of the stroke

    Ends a stroke from the last drawing position to the point where the mouse button or pen was released.

    Scale adjustment

    Prevents jagged strokes by adjusting the smoothing. Reduce anti-aliasing when zooming in on a document; increase in smoothing when the document is scaled down.

    brush stroke determines the number and placement of brush marks in a stroke.

    Brush strokes without dispersion (left) and with dispersion

    «Dispersion» and «Control»

    Specifies how brush marks are distributed in a stroke. If the option is selected
    «Both axes», brush marks are distributed in the radial direction. If the mark from the parameter
    «Both axes» is deselected, brush marks are distributed perpendicularly
    stroke outline.

    To set the maximum scatter percentage,
    enter value. To indicate how the control should be carried out
    variability in the dispersion of brush marks, select an option from the pop-up
    menu «Management».


    Specifies that the trail scatter variability control
    the brush is missing.


    Reduces the scatter of brush marks from maximum scatter to
    value corresponding to the absence of scattering, for the specified number of steps.

    Pen Pressure, Pen Tilt, Copy Wheel, Rotate

    Changes the dispersion of brush marks based on pen pressure,
    pen tilt, pen thumbstick position, or pen rotation.


    Specifies the number of brush marks applied in each spacing interval.

    If this number is increased without increasing the Spatial Separation or Spread value, drawing performance may decrease.

    «Counter fluctuation» and «Control»

    Indicates how the
    the number of brush marks in each spacing interval. To indicate
    the maximum percentage of brush marks applied in each spacing interval,
    enter value. To specify how trace count variability should be managed
    brushes, choose an option from the Control pop-up menu.


    Specifies that the variability in the number of brush marks is not controlled.


    Reduces the number of brush marks from Count to 1
    for the specified number of steps.

    Pen Pressure, Pen Tilt, Copy Wheel, Rotate

    Changes the number of brush marks based on pen pressure,
    pen tilt, pen thumbstick position, or pen rotation.

    can undo all changes to the parameters of a preset brush (except for setting
    brush shapes) at a time.

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    § 2. Types and forms of records used in the operational-search activities of the internal affairs bodies

    that the internal affairs bodies are subject to accounting for a fairly large amount of criminal
    meaningful information about objects, there was a practical need
    formation and use of various arrays of information about them.

    Currently in
    bodies of internal affairs at all levels of government operate more than a hundred
    various accounts. In order to deal with so many accounts,
    their classification is necessary. The question of classification is important not only in
    theoretical but also practical. Consolidation depends on its resolution
    registration functions of certain objects for specific structural
    divisions. For example, records can be classified according to the way they are kept,
    the structural level of their formation and use, as well as the functional

    By way of management
    records are divided into non-automated (file cabinets, collections, etc.) and
    automated (ABD and AIPS), and in terms of the structural level of formation and
    use records can be local, state and federal.

    records are formed and maintained in information and forensic
    centers of UT of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia for federal districts, territorial bodies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia
    at the regional level (the Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Main Directorate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republics of the Russian
    federation). They allow interested operational units to obtain
    information about the objects to be taken into account, regardless of their location

    records are formed and maintained in the federal state institution «Main
    information and analytical center of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian
    Federation» and in the federal state treasury institution
    «Forensic Expert Center of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian

    In addition, each of
    of the listed accounts can be centralized (throughout the territory of Russia) and
    decentralized (local accounting, operating on the territory of one subject

    the basis of the classification is the performance of one or another type of accounting
    its characteristic function only for it, in accordance with which they distinguish
    the following types of accounting:

    — centralized
    operational reference;

    — centralized

    — centralized

    subdivisions of the internal affairs bodies keep records of limited access —
    operational accounts.

    centralized accounting of information received by the internal affairs bodies,
    are file cabinets (photo, trace, video, etc.), lists, magazines,
    automated data banks, automated information systems and

    Card form more often
    In total, it involves keeping a surname record of persons, as well as dactyloscopic

    maintaining centralized records is carried out by the SIAC of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia and the IC by
    formation of an integrated data bank of the federal level (IBD-F),
    integrated data bank of the regional level (IBD-R), automated
    information retrieval systems (AIPS) and automated data banks

    So, what is the difference between
    the above accounts from each other?

    Centralized search registration contains much more information about the object of registration,
    performing, along with the operational reference function, the function of comparing installation
    data and similar external descriptions.

    centralized search records
    persons declared on the federal wanted list, vehicles,
    lost and discovered weapons and other weapons, stolen and seized license plates
    things and documents, stolen items with cultural

    Centralized forensic accounting
    is an array of information about faces,
    objects (traces) and substances with individual characteristics,
    suitable for their fixation and subsequent use for identification
    (establishing an identity with existing analogues).

    persons who are missing, persons who are not capable of
    for health reasons or age, provide information about your personality, as well as
    unidentified corpses. This type of accounting is designed to identify

    conducted in forensic subdivisions forensic accounting.

    forensic records are unidentified persons, objects
    (traces), substances with individual forensic
    information suitable for fixing and subsequent use for the purposes of
    solving problems of operational-search activity and investigation of criminal cases.
    Information is subject to mandatory forensic registration
    about the following objects:

    — Traces of hands
    unidentified persons seized from crime scenes.

    — Bullets, cartridge cases and
    cartridges with traces of rifled small arms firearms seized
    from the scene of incidents and crimes.

    — Control bullets
    and cartridge cases of lost service, civilian firearms with rifled
    barrel, combat hand firearms.

    — Homemade
    (modified) weapon.

    — Homemade
    explosive devices and their parts.

    — Fake
    banknotes, securities and letterheads

    — Fake

    — Traces of soles

    — Traces of guns

    — Traces
    vehicle tire treads.

    — Subjective
    portraits of identified and (or) wanted persons.

    — Micro-objects
    (microfibers, particles of paint and varnish coatings, polymers and

    — Skulls
    unidentified corpses whose identity cannot be established by other means
    seems possible.

    Streptoderma | «Dermatovenerological dispensary No. 6»

    Streptoderma (streptococcal pyoderma) — is an infectious-allergic disease.

    The disease occurs when streptococcus and its waste products get into the skin.

    The main manifestation of the disease , regardless of the age of the patient, is the formation of purulent elements on the surface of the skin, which have a characteristic rounded shape and a flaky surface. There are clinical forms of the disease, depending on the size of the pathological focus, their number and distribution area.

    Causes of streptoderma

    Pathogens — microorganisms of the streptococcus family, are typical representatives of the conditionally pathogenic microbial flora of the body — with sufficiently intense local immunity, the integrity of the skin and mucous membranes, the normal functioning of the body’s immune system as a whole, active development and spread of this organism is limited, and the disease does not develop.

    Occurrence of streptoderma is always associated with a violation of the integrity of the skin (a microtrauma or abrasion is enough for infection to penetrate), a change in local immunity and a violation of the activity of the body’s immune system as a whole.

    Causes and risk factors for the development of streptoderma

    In this disease, as with any streptococcal infection, there is a incubation period. When streptococcus enters the body, the typical clinical picture of streptoderma develops only after 7 days after infection .

    After the end of the incubation period, conflicts appear on the skin . These specific skin rashes are the hallmark of streptoderma.

    Predisposing factors, the presence of which increases the likelihood of developing the disease, are:
    • neglect of the rules of personal hygiene;
    • acute and chronic fatigue;
    • stressful situations;
    • any condition that can cause a decrease in immunity;
    • insufficient amount of vitamins in the patient’s food and his body;
    • skin injuries (even the most minor ones).

    The microorganism can get into the human body by household contact — the infection is transmitted through dishes, clothes, household contacts, through toys, and also through dust, which contains streptococci.

    In the hot season the infection can be transmitted by insects that carry pathogens on their paws.

    In the cold season very often there is a seasonal increase in the incidence of streptoderma, coinciding in time with an increase in the incidence of scarlet fever and tonsillitis — this situation is explained by the fact that the same microorganism becomes the cause of all diseases.

    Clinical symptoms and localization of streptoderma
    The main manifestations of the disease are:

    • Appearance on the surface of the skin of small bubbles filled with a clear, but quickly turbid liquid.
    • Most often, rashes are localized on the face, back, limbs, lower body.
    • Skin itching (unbearable burning often occurs).
    • Pigmentation of the skin at the site of the «old» foci of the disease.
    • General malaise — feeling unwell, lethargy, weakness, lack of appetite.
    Depending on the location of the rashes, there are several clinical forms of streptoderma:
    • streptococcal impetigo is manifested by single scattered rashes (conflicts), which are localized on the skin of the face, trunk, limbs, tend to merge. The lesions do not penetrate deeper than the basal layer of the skin; after opening the conflicts, thin gray crusts form on the surface of the skin, leaving bluish-pink spots after falling off;
    • bullous impetigo is manifested by large conflicts, after the opening of which superficial erosions open on the skin, prone to an increase in the surface of the lesion. Such elements are most often formed on the hands, feet and legs;
    • streptococcal congestion (angular stomatitis, slit-like impetigo) — is manifested by conflicts located in the corners of the mouth. The primary element of the rash very quickly turns into linear cracks, covered with honey-yellow crusts that disappear without a trace, but are prone to reappearance. In addition, slit-like impetigo may appear at the wings of the nose or near the outer edge of the palpebral fissure. The disease may be accompanied by severe itching and salivation, which provoke the spread of the infectious process over the skin of the face, refusal of food due to the inability to open the mouth;
    • Streptococcal lichen in children — occurs most often on the skin of the face. Peeling foci of pink or white color appear, having a rounded shape and clearly defined borders. The elements of the rash may decrease under the influence of sunlight, but previously affected areas of the skin cannot tan normally;
    • tournioles (streptoderma of the nail folds) often occurs in children who are used to biting their nails. In this case, conflicts arise around the nail plates, which open up with the formation of a horseshoe-shaped erosion;
    • streptococcal diaper rash there is a lesion of the skin folds, on which small conflicts are formed, prone to fusion. After opening, weeping surfaces of a bright pink color are formed on the skin.
    Prevention of streptoderma
    Prevention of streptoderma consists of:
    • personal hygiene,
    • limiting contact with persons suffering from any streptococcal infection,
    • timely treatment of infectious diseases.

    It is very important to treat any minor injuries and skin lesions promptly and correctly. With affected areas of the skin, moisture should not be allowed to enter them, as this can contribute to the spread of the disease.

    We invite you to an examination and consultation at the KVD No. 6.

    Our doctors are ready to provide qualified medical care and advice on all your concerns.

    Our address: St. Petersburg, st. Pilot Pilyutov, d. 41

    mode of operation:
    on working days 9.00–20.00
    Saturday (emergency assistance) 9.00-15.00

    Phone registration: 744-2715 ✆

    on the Mars three underground lakes. They may contain traces of early life forms, scientists say

    Photo credit, Esa / ATG Medialab / DLR / FU Berlin

    Photo caption,

    Lakes were discovered thanks to data collected by the Mars Express station

    Three underground lakes were discovered near the South Pole of Mars using the radar of the automatic interplanetary station European Space Agency Mars Express. Earlier, in 2018, one such lake was already discovered there.

    Since the presence of water is a key condition for the existence of life, its discovery on any cosmic body attracts special attention. However, as scientists suggest, the water in the Martian lakes is so salty that even the most resistant microbes will not survive in it.

    Since the atmosphere of Mars is very rarefied, and temperatures are lower than in Antarctica, water in liquid form cannot be on its surface. The lakes are located at a depth of about one and a half kilometers under the polar cap consisting of ice and sand.

    • Why the Red Planet turned green and why scientists are delighted
    • NASA sent the Insight spacecraft to Mars. What will he do?
    • European expedition to Mars started

    Strong pickle

    Since the temperature there is still well below the freezing point, the researchers explain the liquid state of the water with a high content of salts.

    Photo author, Nature

    Photo caption,

    The main lake is surrounded by three smaller reservoirs

    Experiments have shown that water saturated with magnesium and calcium perchlorate salts turns into ice at -123 degrees.

    «These experiments have demonstrated that saline pools can exist for entire geological periods even at temperatures typical of the polar regions of Mars,» says study co-author Graziela Caprelli from the University of South Queensland in Australia. «But the emergence and preservation of such underground lakes requires high salinity.

    Viewed from orbit

    The discovery was made using the Marsis radar aboard the Mars Express orbital station, orbiting the Red Planet since December 2003.

    Photo credit, ESA/DLR/FU Berlin / Bill Dunford

    Photo caption,

    Significant liquid water has been discovered under the South Pole of Mars

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    The radar uses technology that is used to study subglacial lakes in Antarctica, Greenland and Canada, adapted to Mars conditions.

    «The most likely explanation for the current data is that the intensity of reflection from the surface of Mars increases in places where there are large reservoirs of liquid,» says Sebastian Lauro of Tre University in Rome.

    In 2018, analyzing information from Marsis, researchers suggested the existence of an underground lake with a length of about 20 km near the South Pole.

    This discovery was based on 29 measurements taken between 2012-2015. Now an international team of researchers, many of whom worked in 2018, have further analyzed data from another 134 measurements from 2010 to 2019.

    «We not only confirmed the original discovery, but also found three smaller lakes surrounding the main one,» says Elena Pettinelli of the University of Tre. «Due to the limited technical capabilities of the radar and its remoteness from the Martian surface, we cannot say whether they are related or not.

    Traces of early life forms

    Whether any form of life can exist in lakes depends on their degree of salinity. On Earth, in highly saline waters, only a special type of microbes called halophiles survive.

    «The emergence of a single subglacial lake could be attributed to some exceptional circumstances, for example, the presence of a nearby volcano hidden under the ice cap. But the discovery of a whole system of lakes suggests that their formation is a relatively simple and widespread process, and that such lakes have probably existed for much of the history of Mars,» says Roberto Orosei, scientific director of the Marsis program.

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