What is a diagraph: What is a digraph? | TheSchoolRun

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What Is a Digraph? Understanding This Phonics Building Block

What is a digraph? If you’re teaching phonological awareness or reading, you’ll need to know! A digraph is a building block of literacy for any young reader.

But how do you teach digraphs in phonics? And what is a consonant digraph? Grab your favorite warm beverage, and let’s dive into the basics of this important part of phonics with a primer from the ELA teachers on the Teach Starter team!

Digraph Definition

To really answer the question “what is a digraph,” it’s worth going back to the word origin. The word digraph dates back to the 1700s. By definition, a digraph is the term used to describe two consecutive letters that work together to make one sound.

If you want to get really technical, digraphs are a kind of grapheme — a word that refers to any unit (such as a letter or group of letters) in a writing system. In this case, graphemes are letters or groups of letters in English.

Making sense? We’ve got one more important phonics term for you!  The English language is made up of about 44 phonemes, the word for the individual speech sounds that make up words. Phonemes can be written in more than 200 letter combinations known as — you guessed it — graphemes and digraphs!

To help you keep it all straight, download a phonics vocabulary pack! 

What Are the Most Common Digraphs in the English Language?

Digraphs are often taught in order, starting with those most commonly appearing in English words. Here are some common digraph examples students will encounter:

  • ch (as in chin),
  • ch (as in school),
  • ng (as in sing),
  • ph (as in phone),
  • sh (as in ship),
  • th (as is think),
  • wh (as is wheel)

Teaching phonics? Explore our Phonics Games Collection!

What Is a Consonant Digraph?

There are several kinds of digraphs that students will encounter as readers. First up, let’s talk about consonant digraphs.

A consonant digraph is a combination of two consonants that represent one sound. For example, the “wr” digraph represents the sound /r/ in words like write, wriggle, and wrong.

While some consonant digraphs will represent the sound made by a letter of the alphabet — such as the /f/ sound created by the digraph “ph” in the words phone or phonics — others create new sounds such as “sh” or “ch.”

teaching resource

Blending Phoneme Puzzles — 4-Phoneme Puzzles

Master blending phonemes with 4-phoneme blending puzzles as a reading center activity.

4 pagesGrades: K — 1

teaching resource

FIND IT! Digraphs Board Game

Practice decoding words that include 4 examples of consonant digraphs with our digraph flashcards and board game set.

6 pagesGrades: 1 — 2

teaching resource

SMASH IT! Digraphs Game

Segment phonemes and identify the digraphs in this set of 18 game boards and letter cards.

14 pagesGrades: 1 — 2

What Is a Vowel Digraph?

If a consonant digraph is made up of consonants, then it stands to reason that a vowel digraph is a combination of two vowels that represent one sound. For example, the “oa” digraph represents the long /o/ sound. Another vowel digraph example students will encounter as they begin to read is “ea” which creates the long /e/ sound in words like “wheat” and “read.”

What is the Difference Between a Digraph and a Blend?

Have you heard the terms digraph and blend thrown around? They seem like they’d be the same thing, but don’t be deceived!

While they look the same, there is a major difference between a digraph and a blend. A digraph is defined as two letters that make a single sound. The blend is a combination of letters whose sounds are linked together, but not combined when forming a word. The blend stands apart because its letters still make two distinct sounds.

For example, the “sl” combination in “sleep” is a blend, rather than a digraph. That is because you still pronounce the /s/ and /l/ sounds when pronouncing the word.

Another difference between a digraph and a blend is that a digraph can be made up of two consonants or two vowels, while blends are only made up of consonants.

This video shows a simple way to teach students segmenting and blending:

Understanding Syllables to Identify Digraphs

Sometimes, when children are learning to decode words in a text, they encounter letter combinations that appear to be digraphs but don’t actually fit the digraph definition. For example, if students identify “ng” as a single sound in words like “bang” or “sing”, they must also be able to recognize that those letters represent separate sounds in words like “mango.”

A knowledge of syllables (and how to break them down) is important so that children are able to distinguish between the two representations. Students should understand that the “ng” in mango appears where the word would be broken into syllables. Digraphs cannot cross syllable boundaries, as they must make one sound. In this case, the “ng” in mango is not a digraph, since both sounds are clearly pronounced in separate syllables. In the word man/go, the sounds are read as separate consonant sounds, thereby eliminating the “ng” from being labeled as a digraph.

Digraph Activities

Teaching about digraphs? Use these engaging and curriculum-aligned digraph activities to unlock understanding of this key phonics concept!

teaching resource

Building Sundaes — Digraphs

Identify initial and final consonant digraphs with this set of 4 yummy digraph sundaes.

3 pagesGrades: 1 — 2

teaching resource

Beginning Digraphs Sorting Activity

Practice decoding words by their initial digraphs with a set of 20 picture sorting cards.

7 pagesGrades: 1 — 2

teaching resource

Ending Digraphs Sorting Activity

Practice decoding words by sorting 20 picture cards by their ending digraphs.

1 pageGrades: 1 — 2

Explore the full Digraphs Teaching Resource collection!



A quick guide explaining what digraphs are along with plenty of ideas and printable resources for teaching digraphs in the first years at school.

Teaching phonics you are introduced to terms you probably haven’t heard before and as a parent trying to support your child at home, the whole thing can just be confusing.  

Phonograms, digraphs, graphemes, blends, morphemes, trigraphs, dipthongs…

What are digraphs? Aren’t they just blends? How are blends different? In this post, we try to explain the what digraphs are and provide you with some teaching ideas and resources to help teach them to young children.

This post contains affiliate links.


A digraph is two letters which work together to make a single sound like sh in

shell or fi

sh. A digraph can be made up of vowels or consonants. 

Most consonant digraphs are taught in Reception (first year at school) while the vowel consonants are taught more in Year 1.


A consonant blend is when two consonants are blended together but when you stretch out the word, each sound can still be heard. Blends might be the first sounds in a word or the last.

The most common blends are — bl, br, cl, cr, dr, fl, fr, gl, gr, pl, pr, sc, sl, sm, sp, st and tr but there are also some three letter blends like splat, spring and street.


Consonant digraphs are those speech sounds made by groups of two consonants to make a single sound. Examples of consonant digraphs are —

/ck/ as in so

/ch/ as in bea

/ph/ as in 

/sh/ as in 

/th/ as in 

thick or 

/wh/ as in 




Vowel digraphs are made by two letters with at least one being a vowel like /ea in leaf or /oy/ in boy.

Vowel digraphs such as /ae/, /ie/, /oe/, /ee/, /ue/ can also be split by a consonant like in /oe/ in love or /ie/ in bike.

When taught, depending on the phonics program used ( think Jolly Phonics, Letters and Sounds, Soundwaves, Thrass), it’s beneficial to show children that the same sound can be represented different ways. A grapheme is a written symbol (ie letter) that represents a sound. This might be a single letter or could be 2, 3 or even 4 letters said together.

For example, the words p


aim, gr

ey all have the same /ai/ sound but they use a different digraph in each word. Using visuals can help young children start to make sense of this. There are some rules for some digraphs like /ay/ is only found at the end of English words but for other spelling, children will have to rely on their memories and practice. 

Children are offer more competent readers before they are spellers so I always ask my students to ‘read’ their work as a reader to see if they can pick up any mistakes themselves. Even if they can’t fix it, it helps show me what sounds we still need to work on in class.

One classroom tool I love for teaching digraphs are these magnetic letters designed for the Jolly Phonics program as they include the digraphs as one piece providing a useful visual for this age group to help them see the letters working together to make one sound.

Teaching digraphs can be fun and most children are ready to learn them once they have looked at the more common alphabet letter sounds but like everything you introduce, reintroduce and then practice and practice the concept some more.

Playing games are a perfect way to practice and build vocabulary.

I’m a big fan of hands-on activities for this age group so whilst they need constant exposure to digraphs to be able to learn them, I try to use activities that are multi-sensory.

These clip cards are a good example. They help children become more familiar with sounds but build fine motor strength while building their vocabularies as well. 

We use activities like these for some whole class work as well as our small groups for our Daily 5 literacy centres. 


What is a data flow diagram? Examples, Symbols, and Uses

A data flow diagram is a visual representation of the movement of data within a process or system.
These charts help you improve your internal processes and systems and set the right path for key areas of your business.

Create a Data Flow Diagram →

50M users around the world trust Miro

What is a Data Flow Diagram?

A data flow diagram depicts the sequence of data, actors, and steps within a process or system. To build it, a set of special characters is used, each of which represents different stages and persons necessary for the proper execution of the process. Such a diagram can be simple or complex, depending on the system being represented, but the easiest way to create one is to use the Data Flow Diagram Builder.
Data flow diagrams are most commonly used to visualize the flow of data in company information systems. The following example of a data flow diagram shows that such diagrams illustrate the processing of data in a system using a set of input and output variables.

As the name suggests, data flow diagrams are designed to represent data and information graphically. This distinguishes them from workflow diagrams or process flowcharts, which can represent any other process or system in a company.
Tip: You can distinguish between a process flow diagram and a data flow diagram by paying attention to the purpose of the arrows. The arrows in the process flow diagram indicate the sequence of events, while the arrows in the data flow diagram indicate the movement of data.
Data flow diagrams help companies and entrepreneurs understand where data comes from, how it is processed in the system, and where it is transferred after processing.

Advantages of data flow diagrams

A data flow diagram is a graphical representation of functions and processes in a system that helps to understand the principles of collecting, storing and processing information. This visual representation is an excellent communication tool that the user and the system designer can use to exchange views. Here is a more detailed description of some of the benefits of data flow diagrams.


Building a data flow diagram helps to describe and mark the boundaries in the system. Without a data flow diagram, it can be difficult for a company to understand where the system starts and ends. The definition of specific boundaries allows you to clearly delineate the system.

Improvement of information exchange

Data flow scheme facilitates graphical communication between system developers and users. This can help engineers and developers understand the user’s needs and requests.

Powerful visualization tool

Representing a complex data structure as a simple data flow diagram simplifies schema interpretation. Data flow diagrams help teams visualize data and stages of software and system processes. Visualization is extremely important for a clear explanation and better memory of processes.

Logic view

Data flow diagrams represent the logic of data movement within a system. Without rationale and understanding, non-technical project participants may not understand how inputs become outputs.

Data flow diagram symbols

There is a set of standardized symbols to illustrate the components of a data flow diagram. The use of these uniform conventions makes it easy for all team members to read and understand any such diagrams.

External object

External objects are actors, sources, sinks and limiters. These components that exist outside the system send data to or receive data from the system. Typically, external objects are the sources and destinations of the system’s inputs and outputs.


The process component is what transforms incoming data into usable output data.

Data store

The «data store» component is what provides data storage in the system. Typically, these components are represented as files.

Data flows

The data flows components are the paths that data moves through the system. In a diagram, these components are typically represented as arrows and connecting lines.

Create a data flow diagram →

Data flow diagrams and UML

Before looking at the types of data flow diagrams, let’s talk about how these diagrams relate to the Unified Modeling Language (UML) world. UML diagrams and data flow diagrams look similar, but there are a number of key differences between them.
UML is a modeling language used in the development of object-oriented software. For example, software developers use the UML to describe in detail the process and explain how software development is done. There are 14 official types of UML diagrams.
Data flow diagrams, on the other hand, depict the movement of data within a system. They may resemble UML diagrams, but they are not used to describe program logic in detail.
When using UML, an activity diagram can be more useful than a data flow diagram. This is because a data flow diagram is a graphical representation of the movement of data within a system. In the UML activity diagram template, the sequence of activities is displayed similar to the way data moves through the system.

Data flow diagram levels

Data flow diagrams have a multi-level organization. Each level of the diagram goes deeper and more complex as it reflects a specific piece of the system or data. The levels of a data flow diagram are usually labeled Level 0 to Level 2, and in some particularly complex systems, the diagram may go even lower than Level 3. The level of detail you want to analyze determines the depth of the diagram.

Level 0 of a data flow diagram

Level 0 is usually the context level of a data flow diagram. This diagram reflects the big picture and does not contain any specific part of the system. Level 0 is a simple data flow diagram used to form an overview of the system, place it in context, and display a single high-level process.

Level 1 data flow diagram

Level 1 implies a higher level of detail and schema specialization. Level 1 identifies the main functions within a process or system. It is at Level 1 of the data flow diagram that specific sections of the Level 0 overview begin to be detailed and explained.

Data Flow Diagram Level 2

Level 2 goes even deeper: it is used to display and analyze specific sections of a Level 1 diagram. The lower the levels, the more textual information appears in the diagram. For this reason, many system designers choose not to go below Level 2. However, for some very complex systems, it may be necessary to go one or two more levels.

Types of data flow diagrams

Data flow diagrams fall into two categories depending on the type of flow being visualized. A data flow diagram can be either logical or physical. Each subtype has its purpose and its advantages.

Logical data flow diagram

Logical data flow diagrams are more focused on the activities and processes within the company. They answer the question «What?» and represent it graphically. Logical data flow diagrams show what a company does, delivers, and strives for. They describe business events and the information and data needed to carry out those events.
A logical data flow diagram is useful in that it depicts a business process. It helps to understand the types of functionality available and desired by the company.

Physical Data Flow Diagram

The Physical Data Flow Diagram graphically represents the implementation of business systems. In contrast to the question «What?», it answers the question «How?». A physical diagram shows how data moves within a system and how the system functions. This type of data flow diagram includes elements such as files, system software, and hardware.
Physical and logical data flow diagrams allow you to look at the same data flows from different angles. They can be used together for a holistic understanding of the entire process.

Create a data flow diagram →

When to use data flow diagrams

Data flow diagrams were originally used to show the flow of data in a computer system. However, today they are used at different stages of ideation and development in a wide variety of industries. They are especially useful for companies that rely heavily on data and information.
The following are examples of applications for data flow diagrams.

Software development

Programmers use data flow diagrams to develop the foundations and architecture of software before moving on to the coding stage. Such charts are also useful as a tool for continuous system analysis to evaluate progress and implement system improvements.

Business Management

Management must fully understand the processes that make the company successful. Data flow diagrams are a valuable tool for Agile process planning and overall process improvement within a company. They can be used to optimize a company’s day-to-day systems and workflows.

Database development

In this digital age, almost every business has an online component that relies on a complex database structure to store user data. Data flow diagrams help you plan and label the movement and storage of data in online databases. In a world where information security and data protection are critical, data flow diagrams help set the right path for developers and companies.

How to create a data flow diagram

Now that you have an idea of ​​what data flow diagrams are and where they are used, you can start building your own diagram. Below is a handy step-by-step guide to create a comprehensive data flow diagram using Miro’s data flow diagram template.

Step 1

Start by sorting the input and output. Each process that will be reflected in the diagram must have at least one data input and data output. This will ensure that the data flow diagram is complete and has no loose ends.

Step 2

Start diagramming at Level 0 to get a general idea of ​​the context of the system. Such a general view will allow you to assess the need for a more detailed representation of the system at deeper levels.

Step 3

Go to Level 1. At this level, you can add details to the overall structure. In the course of building Tier 1, as attention shifts to individual systems within the company, more processes and steps can be added to the structure. Remember to use the standardized data flow diagram symbols and shapes described above.

Step 4

Repeat Step 3 and go deeper each time you want to focus on a particular system or process. There is no limit on the number of levels added. But remember: the diagram should be easy to read. Share the chart with team members and invite them to provide feedback, ask questions, and make suggestions. Miro makes it easy to collaborate with your team on a shared canvas in real time.

Create a Data Flow Diagram in Miro

Creating a Data Flow Diagram may seem difficult at first, but having a template makes it a lot easier.
Using the data flow diagram template will greatly reduce the time-consuming initial design and planning steps so you can focus on creating an efficient diagram.
This easy-to-use template is a solid base for adding project information.
and charting. Its communication features, such as the ability to share with the team and leave comments, make it ideal for
your company.

Create a data flow diagram →

What is a Diagram, definition of the term in the Dahl Dictionary






















graphic arts,












The minimums and maxima of fluidity (X) of alloys, depending on the composition, correspond to certain sections and critical points on state diagrams (Fig.

V. I. Kumanin, Materials for jewelry, 2012

Adding up all the times in each of these categories, draw a circle chart on your use of working hours.

N. I. Kozlov, Life is good! How to have time to fully live and work, 2009

Excel supports working with different types of charts : histograms, pie charts, bubbles, graphs, etc.

Dmitry Dontsov, Excel. Easy start

An example of constructing diagram is shown in fig.

Yu. N. Lapygin, Dissertation research undergraduate, postgraduate, doctoral student, 2009

Simply put, if a person is afraid, his diagram shows a certain contour.

A. N. Semenova, Moon and Blooming Garden, 2008

Comparison of multidimensional systems cannot be carried out using a two-dimensional chart of costs and traffic volumes.

V. R. Vuchik, Transport in cities convenient for life, 2011

All this must be done consistently and systematically, and for clarity, it is also desirable to show on charts .

V. V. Kondratiev, Show business processes, 2008

In any case, some complex multi-colored diagram was displayed on her monitor, and he involuntarily became interested.

Dana Hudson, Hasty Judgment, 2012

So, if printing black text and color chart was running at the promised speed 24 pages

PC Magazine/RE, PC Magazine/RE #11/2008

Instead of answering, I suggested that he plot diagram .

D. L. Spivak, How to become a polyglot, 1989

On the sides of the highway stood, creaking on skinny poles, shields from diagrams of the growth of the well-being of the inhabitants of our region.

I. G. Volkova-Kitaina, Caryatida, 1996

This strange diagram attempts to present to us the genesis of vision, where the eye is both the seat of visible forms and the abode of invisible entelechies.

Mikhail Yampolsky, Prigov. Essays on artistic nominalism, 2016

Woodman compiled a diagram which we present here (Fig.

E. G. Troshikhina, Vessel and Mirror. Development of the Emotional Resource of a Personality in Psychotherapy, 2014

It is worth remembering that one of the variants of the Rosicrucian diagrams given above (see

A. V. Dobryakova, Eternal Signs, 2011

When creating diagrams , the built-in wizard for their construction and the editor for changing data will come to the rescue.

S. A. Yaremchuk, 200 best programs for Linux, 2008

The results are issued in digital form and in the form of topographic charts .

Maximilian Teicher, Boost Your Brain!, 2008

All elements of diagram are defined.

Charlotte Roberts, Dance of Change. New problems of learning organizations, 1999

On a piece of paper, the brothers made notes and drew diagrams , ran a finger along the bed, recreating the movement that took place on the field.

Jhumpa Lahiri, Lowlands

Multi-colored, with Gothic letters, hung diagrams : two thousand square meters of pavement, twelve lanterns, one tower.

L. I. Dobychin, Portrait

Perform functional decomposition diagram information flow?

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On the diagram of the connections, both the strongest and auxiliary connections between the subjects are noted.

A. V. Artemov, Information security. Course of lectures, 2014

This is clearly seen in the three-dimensional diagram 7, which makes it possible to see the distribution of the peaks of criminal law accidents in the city of

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Feature of diagrams is the presence of the center, which is the reference point or the initial location of the tip of the suspended pendulum.

O. A. Krasavin, Encyclopedia of dowsing, 2013

I controlled myself by referring to fifteen diagrams on a large chart that was once considered the highest law of physical development.

Arnold Bennet, Mental Efficiency

The entire center of of diagram suddenly turned gray, and the pin burst into a bright blue flame.

K. Yu. Boyandin, To die for the first time, 1998

Deprive the landscape of live, smooth lines, simplify it to right angles, and you get a simple 9 on paper.0197 chart .

G. K. Chesterton, The Disappearance of the Prince. Room No. 13

All possible variants ultimately come from one cell type, which in such a diagram is a tree trunk.

Jamie Davies, Ontogeny. From cell to human

You can also use bar chart for planning.

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Forget about all external restrictions and build your diagram step by step, from beginning to end.

Charlotte Roberts, Dance of Change. New problems of learning organizations, 1999

The extreme right column of diagram in fig.

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Due to this equality, the vector voltage diagram of the receiver does not differ from the vector diagrams of the source when connected by a star (see

Thus, you can make any diagrams for the study of radiation, choosing for each of them the name and number of sectors.

O. A. Krasavin, Encyclopedia of dowsing, 2013

The Excel program supports work with various types of charts : histograms, pie charts, bubbles, graphs, etc.
Are there other methods of working with diagrams from the monitor screen?

L. G. Puchko, Human life and health in questions and answers of Multidimensional Medicine, 2009

Finally, a few among the applicants understood that it was impossible to get diagrams in the allotted time and invented them.

Mark Reitman, Russian success. Essays on Russians who have achieved success in the USA, 1997

Matrix diagram allows you to identify the relationship between individual factors, which have the form of cause-and-effect relationships.

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Vector diagrams are widely used in the analysis of sinusoidal current circuits.

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Great importance in the teachings of the Vajrayana is attached to the contemplation of the mandala — the magical diagram , or «map of the cosmos. »

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Thus, diagram illustrates the steps by which small differences denoting varieties reach large differences denoting species.

C. R. Darwin, On the Origin of Species, 1859

On the vector diagram (Fig. 15b), the Ur vector coincides with the current vector, and the Ul vector leads the current vector by 90°.

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The gaps between the horizontal lines on the diagram may correspond to a thousand or more generations.

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