Greek God Names — From A to Z
The following is a list of male Greek god names. This list includes both major and minor male gods from both Greek and Roman mythology.
For a list of just Greek goddess names, click here.
For a complete list of Greek gods and goddesses, click here.
Note that clicking on Greek god names that have links will take you to a detailed description of that particular god. Not all gods have their own pages.
Greek God Names A-C
- Achelous — The patron god of the Achelous river.
- Aeolus — (a.k.a. Aeolos, Aiolos, Aiolus, Eolus) God of air and the winds.
- Aether — (a.k.a. Aither, Akmon, Ether) God of light and the atmosphere.
- Alastor — God of family feuds.
- Apollo — (a.k.a. Apollon, Apulu, Phoebus) God of the sun, music, healing, and herding.
- Ares — (a.k.a. Enyalius, Mars, Aries) God of chaotic war.
- Aristaeus — (a.k.a. Aristaios) Patron god of animal husbandry, bee-keeping, and fruit trees.
- Asclepius — (a.k.a. Aesculapius, Asklepios) God of health and medicine.
- Atlas — The Primordial Titan who carried the weight of the heavens on his back.
- Attis — The (minor) god of rebirth.
- Boreas — (a.k.a. Aquilo, Aquilon) The North Wind. One of the Anemoi (wind gods).
- Caerus — (a.k.a. Kairos, Occasio, Tempus) The (minor) god of luck and opportunity.
- Castor — (a.k.a. Castore, Kastor) One of the twins who represent Gemini.
- Cerus — The wild bull tamed by Persephone, made into the Taurus constellation.
- Chaos — (a.k.a. Khaos) The nothingness that all else sprung from.
- Charon — (a.k.a. Charun) The Ferryman of Hades. He had to be paid to help one cross the river Styx.
- Chronos — (a.k.a. Chronus, Khronos) God of time.
- Crios — The crab who protected the sea nymphs, made into the Cancer constellation.
- Cronus — (a.k.a. Cronos, Kronos, Saturn) God of agriculture, father of the Titans.
Greek God Names D-L
- Dinlas — Guardian god of the ancient city of Lamark, where wounded heroes could heal after battle.
- Dionysus — (a.k.a. Bacchus, Dionysos, Liber) God of wine and pleasure.
- Erebus — (a.k.a. Erebos) God of darkness.
- Eros — (a.k.a. Amor, Cupid, Eleutherios) God of love, procreation and sexual desire.
- Eurus — (a.k.a. Euros, Vulturnus) The East Wind — One of the Anemoi (wind gods).
- Glaucus — (a.k.a. Glacus, Glaukos) A fisherman turned immortal, turned Argonaut, turned a god of the sea.
- Hades — (a.k.a. Aita, Dis Pater, Haidou, Orcus, Plouton, Pluto) God of the Dead, King of the Underworld.
- Helios — (a.k.a. Sol) God of the Sun.
- Hephaestus — (a.k.a. Hephaistos, Vulcan, Sethlans, Mulciber) God of fire and blacksmithing who created weapons for the gods.
- Heracles — (a.k.a. Herakles, Hercules, Hercle) An immortal hero of many Greek legends, the strongest man on Earth.
- Hermes — (a.k.a. Pyschopompus, Mercury, Turms) God of commerce and travel, and messenger of the gods.
- Hesperus — (a.k.a. Hesperos, Vesper) The Evening Star.
- Hymenaios — (a.k.a. Hymenaeus, Hymen) God of weddings.
- Hypnos — (a.k.a. Somnus) God of sleep.
- Kratos — A god of strength and power.
Greek God Names M-R
- Momus — (a.k.a. Momos) God of satire, writers, and poets.
- Morpheus — God of dreams and sleep.
- Nereus — (a.k.a. Phorcys, Phorkys) Titan God who Fathered the Nereids. God of the Sea before Poseidon.
- Notus — (a.k.a. Auster) The South Wind. One of the Anemoi (wind gods).
- Oceanus — Titan god of the ocean.
- Pallas — A giant who was one of the ancient Titan gods of war.
- Pan — (a.k.a. Faunus, Inuus) God of woods, fields, and flocks. Also a Satyr.
- Phosphorus — (a.k.a. Phosphor, Lucifer) The Morning Star.
- Plutus — God of wealth.
- Pollux — (a.k.a. Polydeuces) One of the twins who represent Gemini.
- Pontus — (a.k.a. Pontos) Ancient god of the deep sea.
- Poseidon — (a.k.a. Neptune, Nethuns, Neptunus) God of the sea and earthquakes.
- Priapus — (a.k.a. Priapus, Mutinus, Mutunus) A (minor) god of gardens and fertility, best known for having an enormous penis.
- Pricus — The immortal father of sea-goats, made into the Capricorn constellation.
- Proteus — An early sea god before Poseidon.
Greek God Names T-Z
- Tartarus — (a.k.a. Tartaros, Tartarizo) God of the depths of the Underworld — a great storm pit — and the father of Typhon.
- Thanatos — (a.k.a. Mors) God of death.
- Triton — (a.k.a. Triton) Trumpeter of the sea and messenger of the deep.
- Typhon — (a.k.a. Typhaon, Typhoeus, Typhus) God of monsters, storms, and volcanoes. Challenged Zeus for control of Mount Olympus.
- Uranus — (a.k.a. Ouranos, Caelus) God of the sky and the heavens. Father of the Titans.
- Zelus — The god of zeal, rivalry, and jealousy.
- Zephyrus — (a.k.a. Zephyros, Favonius, Zephyr) The West Wind. One of the Anemoi (wind gods).
- Zeus — (a.k.a. Dias, Jupiter, Tinia, Jove, Jovis Pater) Leader of the Olympic gods, and god of lightning, thunder, and the heavens.
Click here to read the complete list of Greek Goddess Names.
Click here to return to the Complete List of Greek Gods and Goddesses.
154 Powerful Greek Mythology Names (For Cool Boys And Girls)
Greek mythology is full of fascinating warriors, leaders, muses, monsters, and romancers to keep one inspired. Finding the perfect baby name among a myriad of Greek gods and goddesses can sometimes feel as difficult as reaching Mount Olympus!
So, we have gone ahead and explored the ancient Greek legends to find the most powerful and mighty Greek mythology names to suit any baby god or goddess. With all the meanings, divine namesakes, and more to learn behind each one, your little star will have the coolest name in no time.
Table of Contents
- 86 Greek Mythology Names For Girls
- 58 Greek Mythology Names For Boys
- 10 Unisex Greek Mythology Names
- Greek Mythology Names FAQs
86 Greek Mythology Names For Girls
Your little goddess will sound so beautiful with one of these dazzling Greek mythology names for girls.
- Achlys – with the eerie meaning of “mist,” Achlys was the personification of sorrow.
- Aegle – a luminous-sounding Greek mythology name, meaning “light, glory.”
- Aidos – the goddess of “shame” and “respect.”
- Alala – a melodic name given to the personification of the “war cry” in mythology.
- Alcyone – a variant of Halcyone, this cool mythological name means “kingfisher.”
- Althaea – the queen of Calydon, whose name holds the noble meaning of “honest.”
- Amaltheia – a tender goddess name, meaning “to soothe.”
- Ananke – the mythological personification of “necessity” and “inevitability.”
- Antigone – a strong mythological name with the unique meaning of “in place of parents.”
- Aphrodite – from the Greek “aphros,” meaning “foam,” Aphrodite was the goddess of love, sex, and beauty.
- Arachne – a creepy-crawly Greek myth name meaning “spider.”
- Ariadne – a mythical princess with the beautiful meaning of “most holy.”
- Arina – meaning “peace,” this is a harmonic goddess name for sure.
- Arke – a short yet cool option among Greek mythological goddess names, meaning “swift.”
- Artemis – with the unusual meaning of “butcher,” Artemis was the goddess of the hunt.
- Astraea – derived from “aster,” meaning “star,” this was the Greek goddess of justice.
- Atalanta – meaning “balanced,” this charming heroine name is a gorgeous pick among Greek mythology names.
- Athena – meaning “from Athens,” Athena was the goddess of war and wisdom.
- Aura – meaning “gentle breeze,” this goddess name would be ideal for a springtime baby girl.
- Bia – a short, powerful girl’s name, after the Titan goddess of “force” and “energy. ”
- Calliope – a stunning Greek goddess name, meaning “beautifully voiced.”
- Cassandra – a Trojan prophetess whose name means “to shine,” with Cassie as an adorable nickname.
- Chinoa – a fantastical mythological name meaning snow.
- Clio – meaning “glory, celebration,” Clio was a delightful mythological muse.
- Cressida – a Shakesperian name from Greek mythology, meaning “dear” or “precious.”
- Cynthia – a popular, floral-sounding pick, meaning “moon goddess.”
- Danae – meaning “she who judges,” this dreamy name belonged to the goddess of music and poetry.
- Demeter – the vibrant goddess of agriculture, whose name means “earth mother.”
- Diantha – a unique yet whimsical name, meaning “divine flower.”
- Eirene – a gorgeously soft and sweet choice, belonging to a goddess of peace.
- Elara – with the feisty meaning of “spear,” Elara was a mythical Greek princess.
- Electryone – an electric name meaning “amber,” belonging to a goddess of sunrise.
- Enyo – a Greek war goddess, making this a name ready for battle.
- Eos – a cool and dreamy name meaning “dawn” and the Greek goddess of daybreak.
- Erato – meaning “lovely,” Erato was a poetry goddess and muse.
- Eris – a bold and daring goddess name, meaning “strife.”
- Ersa – the goddess of the morning dew, makes a beautiful namesake for a morning-born little girl.
- Europa – meaning “wide-face,” Europa makes a great fantasy name and location name.
- Eurydice – a pretty mythology name, meaning “wide justice.”
- Gaia – meaning earth, Gaia was the personification of the land itself.
- Halcyone – meaning “kingfisher,” an unusual and radiant animal-inspired name.
- Hecate – a figure associated with the moon, Hecate means “far-reaching.”
- Helen – an internationally popular feminine choice, meaning “light” or “torch.”
- Hemera – a vibrant and sunshine-filled mythology girl name meaning “day.”
- Hera – meaning “goddess of the hearth,” Hera was the mighty queen of Mount Olympus.
- Hermione – a great choice for literature lovers, Hermione is derived from the male name Hermes.
- Hestia – a warm choice among mythology names, Hestia refers to the home and hearth goddess.
- Hygieia – a squeaky-clean name belonging to the goddess of hygiene, cleanliness, and good health.
- Iaso – meaning “healing,” Iaso was the goddess of cures and recuperation.
- Ino – a queen in Greek mythology and a short-but-sweet name meaning “white goddess.”
- Iris – a classic floral name, meaning “rainbow” in Greek, belonging to the messenger goddess of the rainbow.
- Jocasta – meaning “shining moon,” Jocasta was the mother of Oedipus.
- Ker – the singular form of Keres, a group of death goddesses in Greek mythology.
- Keres – the Keres were female spirits of violent death, offering a potentially cute-sounding name.
- Kleio – a cool alternative spelling of Clio, meaning “glory or celebration.”
- Leto – a pretty mythological name of unknown meaning, Leto was the mother of Apollo and Artemis.
- Leucothea – a dazzling Greek fantasy name, meaning “white goddess.”
- Lyssa – a holy pick among Greek goddess names, meaning “blessed” or “God’s promise.”
- Macaria – a sweet Spanish and Greek mythology name, meaning “happy, blessed.”
- Maya – a sweet, popular choice, referring to the goddess of spring.
- Medea – meaning “cunning,” Medea was a crafty sorceress in Greek mythology.
- Medusa – meaning “protector or ruler,” legend has it that those who laid eyes upon her were turned to stone.
- Melissa – a pretty and popular international name meaning “honeybee,” also from Greek mythology.
- Menodora – a dreamy Greek girl’s name meaning “moon.”
- Nephele – meaning “cloud,” Nephele is an adorably airy choice to consider.
- Nicaea – a mythical nymph with the triumphant meaning of “victory.”
- Nike – not the sportswear brand, but the Greek goddess of “victory.”
- Niobe – a unique yet stylish pick among female Greek mythology names, believed to mean “fern.”
- Nyx – the shadowy personification and goddess of “nighttime.”
- Oizys – a stand-out name with a cool spelling, given to the mythological personification of misery and anxiety.
- Olympia – inspired by Mount Olympus, the home of the Greek gods, this feminine name is celestially divine!
- Ourania – the goddess of astronomy, with the ethereal meaning of “heavenly. ”
- Pallas – meaning “wisdom” or “youth,” Pallas was another name for the goddess Athena.
- Pandia – a playful-sounding pick among mythological names, meaning “brightness.”
- Pandora – meaning “all-giving,” Pandora was the first human woman in ancient Greek religion.
- Penelope – meaning “weaver,” this sweet name belonging to Odysseus’s wife, with Penny as a cute nickname.
- Penia – meaning “deficiency,” Penia was the mythical personification of poverty.
- Persephone – meaning “destruction,” Persephone was the queen of the underworld, responsible for changing seasons.
- Phaedra – the daughter of King Minos, whose name holds the upbeat meaning of “radiant, happy.”
- Phoebe – a Titan associated with the moon, with the celestial meaning of “one who shines brightly.”
- Rhea – with the airy meaning of “flowing,” Rhea was a fertility goddess.
- Selene – a Titan lunar deity and personification of the moon itself.
- Theia – meaning “gift from God,” this mother goddess name is radiant and pure.
- Thetis – a spiritual-sounding name belonging to an ocean nymph.
- Titaia – meaning “burning,” Titaia was the mother of the Titans.
- Tyche – meaning “luck, providence,” Tyche was a goddess of fortune.
58 Greek Mythology Names For Boys
These Greek god names for boys sure are handsome choices.
- Adonis – a handsome, romantic pick, meaning “beauty, desire.”
- Aegeus – a mighty name meaning “protector” and a mythical, monster-killing king.
- Aeolus – a name borne by various mythological figures, meaning “changeable.”
- Aether – meaning “brightness,” Aether represented the luminous, highest level of the sky.
- Aion – meaning “life” or “age,” Aion was a god associated with time and the zodiac.
- Ajax – a warrior in Greek mythology whose name means “free, brave.”
- Apollo – the god of the sun, Apollo’s name means “destroyer.”
- Ares – the bloodthirsty god of battle, Ares means “ruin” or “battle.”
- Atlas – a condemned Titan whose name holds the sweet meaning of “enduring.”
- Bacchus – meaning “writer,” Bacchus is a great name for literature lovers, referring to the god Dionysus.
- Boreas – meaning “north wind,” this icy name belonged to the god of winter.
- Castor – meaning “to excel,” Castor was the mythological twin brother of Pollux.
- Chronos – meaning “time,” Chronos was the personification of time itself.
- Demetrius – meaning “devoted,” a family-oriented, divine name.
- Dionysus – meaning “of Zeus,” Dionysus was the god of wine and revelry.
- Erebus – the god and personification of “darkness.”
- Eros – meaning “love,” Eros is the romantic god of desire.
- Hades – the lord of the underworld, whose name has the chilling meaning of “unseen.”
- Hector – meaning “steadfast,” this internationally-popular masculine name was borne by a Trojan War hero.
- Helios – a stellar choice among Greek myth names relating to the divine personification of the sun.
- Heracles – meaning “glory of Hera,” this divine name is fit for an inspiring hero.
- Hermes – the messenger to the gods, Hermes’ name may mean “messenger” or “interpreter.”
- Hesperos – meaning “evening star,” this would make a lovely choice for a nighttime-born baby.
- Hyperion – an all-powerful name meaning “high, supreme one,” Hyperion was a Titan in Greek mythology.
- Hypnos – meaning “sleep,” this sweet mythology name sure is dreamy.
- Iapetus – meaning “the piercer,” you could say this is a “sharp” name from Greek mythology.
- Icarus – meaning “follower,” after the figure who flew too close to the sun.
- Ikelos – a stylish-sounding Greek myth name referring to the god of nightmares.
- Jason – meaning “healer” or “leader,” this popular choice belonged to the leader of the Argonauts.
- Koalemos – the god of stupidity, thus an unusual pick for a mischievous baby.
- Kratos – the mythological personification of strength, Kratos makes a solid namesake for your tough little lad.
- Linus – a wise-sounding mythological pick, meaning “flax” or “blonde.”
- Minos – a unique mythology name with the regal meaning of “king.”
- Moros – meaning “doom, ” Moros is perhaps a morbid choice amongst Greek god names.
- Morpheus – a soothing choice, belonging to the god of “sleep and dreams.”
- Oceanus – meaning “ocean,” Oceanus was the god of seas, streams, and water.
- Odysseus – an all-powerful, classic Greek male name, meaning “anger, pain.”
- Olympus – a sturdy, masculine name inspired by Mount Olympus itself.
- Orion – a mythological huntsman and constellation that’s visible worldwide.
- Orpheus – said to mean “darkness of night,” Orpheus was a legendary lyre-playing prophet.
- Ouranos – another name for Uranus, the god of the heavens, meaning “sky.”
- Pan – a Greek god of shepherds, whose name serves as a prefix to mean “all.”
- Perses – meaning “destroyer,” Perses is a powerful pick among Greek god names.
- Perseus – like Perses, Perseus means “destroyer” and is pronounced PUR-see-us or PER-SEWS.
- Phoebus – meaning “pure, bright,” this dashing pick was another name for the god Apollo.
- Pollux – meaning “sweet,” Pollux was the mythological twin brother of Castor.
- Pontus – meaning “sea,” Pontus was a pre-Olympian god of the oceans.
- Poseidon – with the cool meaning of “lord of the Earth,” Poseidon was the mighty sea god.
- Potamoi – the Potamoi are a group of river and stream gods in Greek mythology.
- Prometheus – a Titan god of fire, whose rare name sure does sound legendary.
- Proteus – meaning “first,” this sea god name would be an excellent choice for a first-born son.
- Tartarus – a morbid name referring to the deepest part of the underworld.
- Titan – in Greek mythology, the Titans were the pre-Olympian gods.
- Triton – a mythological sea god whose name would be perfect for a little water baby.
- Typhon – a deadly serpentine monster in Greek mythology, thus a name to be feared!
- Uranus – a cool space name meaning “sky,” and the god of the heavens.
- Zelos – with the meaning of “zeal or jealousy,” Zelos may be sour, yet it sounds super stylish.
- Zeus – meaning “sky father,” Zeus was the supreme king of the gods on Mount Olympus.
10 Unisex Greek Mythology Names
Your little demigod will shine brighter than the stars with one of these great, gender-neutral Greek names!
- Anemoi – the name of a group of wind gods in ancient Greek mythology.
- Athens – Greece’s capital city, makes a fantastic locational name, especially for mythology fans.
- Chaos – the personification of nothingness, like the void in eternity, makes an unusual greek name.
- Griffin – a cool mythical creature with the head of an eagle and the body of a lion.
- Hymen – female anatomy aside, Hymen was an ancient Greek god of marriage and hymns.
- Nemesis – as well as being a synonym for “archenemy,” Nemesis was a Greek goddess of retribution.
- Oneiroi – meaning “dreams,” Oneiroi is a cute name not to be slept on!
- Phoenix – a mythical bird that catches on fire and rebirths itself from the ashes.
- Pistis – the personification of “faith” and “trust” makes an honest namesake for your new angel.
- Styx – in Greek mythology, the River Styx runs the boundary between the living world and the underworld.
Greek Mythology Names FAQs
What Are Some Greek Warrior Names?
Greek mythology warrior names include Ajax and Perses for boys and Athena, Bia, or Artemis for girls.
What Is The Prettiest Goddess Name?
We think all Greek goddess names are beautiful, but some with the prettiest meanings include Aphrodite, Calliope, Dianthe, and Ariadne.
About the Author
Madeleine Lily Webb
Madeleine is a writer from somewhere near Manchester, England. Madeleine’s background in languages and linguistics has led to baby names becoming one of her favorite topics to write about. When she’s not fallen down a rabbit hole of stories behind unique names, Madeleine can be found hanging out with her cat, taking photos of flowers, or dancing.
Gods of Ancient Greece — list of names, descriptions, pictures
The main deities of Ancient Greece: 12 Olympian gods, their helpers and companions
Primal natural elements of ancient Greek mythology
Titans 9 0005
Spirits and magical creatures of ancient Greek mythology
The names of most of the gods are provided as hyperlinks, where you can go to a detailed article about each of them.
See also Heroes of Ancient Greece — list with drawings. Read also the articles Gods of Rome — list, Gods of Ancient Greece, Myths about the gods of Ancient Greece, Myths about the origin of the gods of Ancient Greece, Monsters of ancient Greek mythology, Gods of Ancient Egypt, Scandinavian gods, Gods of ancient Germans, Gods of ancient Slavs, Gods of Ancient India, Gods of China .
See also: Ancient Greek creation myth.
The main deities of Ancient Greece: 12 Olympian gods, their assistants and companions
The main gods in Ancient Hellas were those that belonged to the younger generation of celestials. Once upon a time, it took power over the world from the older generation, which personified the main universal forces and elements (see about this in the article The Origin of the Gods of Ancient Greece). The gods of the older generation are usually called titans . Having defeated the titans, the younger gods, led by Zeus, settled on Mount Olympus. The ancient Greeks honored 12 Olympian gods. Their list usually included Zeus, Hera, Athena, Hephaestus, Apollo, Artemis, Poseidon, Ares, Aphrodite, Demeter, Hermes, Hestia. Hades is also close to the Olympian gods, but he does not live on Olympus, but in his underworld.
Olympian gods. Listen to the audiobook
Zeus is the main deity of ancient Greek mythology, the king of all other gods, the personification of the boundless sky, the lord of lightning. In Roman religion, it corresponded to Jupiter
Poseidon — the god of the seas, among the ancient Greeks — the second deity in importance after Zeus. As the personification of the changeable and stormy water element, Poseidon was closely associated with earthquakes and volcanic activity. In Roman mythology, he was identified with Neptune.
Hades is the ruler of the gloomy underground kingdom of the dead, inhabited by the ethereal shadows of the dead and terrible demonic creatures. Hades (Hades), Zeus and Poseidon made up the triad of the most powerful gods of Ancient Hellas. As ruler of the depths of the earth, Hades was also associated with agricultural cults, with whom his wife, Persephone, was closely associated. The Romans called Pluto .
God Hades with the three-headed dog Cerberus guarding the underworld
Hera is the sister and wife of Zeus, the main female goddess of the Greeks. The patroness of marriage and conjugal love. Jealous Hera severely punishes the violation of marriage bonds. The Romans corresponded to Juno.
Apollo — originally the god of sunlight, whose cult then acquired a wider meaning and connection with the ideas of spiritual purity, artistic beauty, medical healing, retribution for sins. As a patron of creative activity, he is considered the head of the nine muses, as a healer — the father of the god of doctors Asclepius. The image of Apollo among the ancient Greeks was formed under the strong influence of Eastern cults (the Asia Minor god Apelun) and carried refined aristocratic features. Apollo was also called Phoebus. Under the same names, he was revered in ancient Rome
Apollo seated with lyre. 2nd century statue n. e. from the Farnese collection, Naples
Artemis is the sister of Apollo, the virgin goddess of forests and hunting. Like the cult of Apollo, the veneration of Artemis was brought to Greece from the East (the Asia Minor goddess Rtemis). The close connection of Artemis with forests comes from her ancient function as the patroness of vegetation and fertility in general. The virginity of Artemis also contains a dull echo of the ideas of birth and love. In ancient Rome, she was revered in the person of the goddess Diana.
Goddess Artemis. Statue in the Louvre
Photo by Vovazl
Athena is the goddess of spiritual harmony and wisdom. She was considered the inventor and patroness of most of the sciences, arts, spiritual pursuits, agriculture, and crafts. With the blessing of Pallas Athena, cities are being built and state life is going on. The image of Athena as a defender of the fortress walls, a warrior, a goddess who, at her very birth, came out of the head of her father, Zeus, armed, is closely connected with the patronage functions of cities and the state. Among the Romans, Athena corresponded to the goddess Minerva.
Statue of Athena the Virgin in the Parthenon. The ancient Greek sculptor Phidias
Hermes is the most ancient pre-Greek god of roads and field boundaries, all boundaries separating one from the other. Due to his primordial connection with the roads, Hermes was later revered as a messenger of the gods with wings on his heels, the patron of travel, merchants and trade. His cult was also associated with ideas about resourcefulness, cunning, subtle mental activity (skillful distinction concepts), knowledge of foreign languages. The Romans — Mercury, after which the planet of the same name is named.
Hermes with caduceus. Statue from the Vatican Museum
Ares is the wild god of war and battle. In ancient Rome — Mars, after which the planet is named.
Aphrodite is the ancient Greek goddess of love and beauty. Her type is very close to the Semitic-Egyptian veneration of the productive forces of nature in the form of Astarte (Ishtar) and Isis. The famous legend about Aphrodite and Adonis was inspired by the most ancient oriental myths about Ishtar and Tammuz, Isis and Osiris. The ancient Romans identified with Venus, after which the planet of the same name is named.
Venus (Aphrodite) de Milo. Statue ca. 130-100 BC
Eros is the son of Aphrodite, a divine boy with a quiver and a bow. At the request of his mother, he shoots well-aimed arrows that kindle incurable love in the hearts of people and gods. In Rome — Cupid. The poetic myth of Cupid and Psyche is widely known.
God Eros. Red-figure dish, ca. 340-320 BC e.
Hymen is the companion of Aphrodite, the god of marriage. According to his name, wedding hymns were also called hymens in ancient Greece.
Hephaestus is a god whose cult in the era of hoary antiquity was associated with volcanic activity — fire and roar. Later, thanks to the same properties, Hephaestus became the patron of all crafts associated with fire: blacksmithing, pottery, etc. In Rome, the god Vulcan corresponded to him.
Demeter — (among the Romans Ceres) personified the productive force of nature, but not wild, like Artemis once, but «ordered», «civilized», the one that manifests itself in regular rhythms. Demeter was considered the goddess of agriculture, who rules the annual natural cycle of renewal and decay. She also led the cycle of human life — from birth to death. This last aspect of the cult of Demeter was the content of the Eleusinian mysteries.
Persephone is the daughter of Demeter, kidnapped by the god Hades. The inconsolable mother, after a long search, found Persephone in the underworld. Hades, who made her his wife, agreed that she would spend part of the year on earth with her mother, and the other with him in the bowels of the earth. Persephone was the personification of the grain, which, being «dead» sown in the ground, then «comes to life» and comes out of it into the light.
Abduction of Persephone. Antique jug, ca. 330-320 BC
Hestia (among the Romans — Vesta) — the patron goddess of the hearth, family and community ties. Altars to Hestia stood in every ancient Greek house and in the main public building of the city, all citizens of which were considered one big family.
Dionysus is the god of winemaking and those violent natural forces that bring a person to insane delight. Dionysus was not one of the 12 «Olympic» gods of Ancient Greece. His cult was borrowed comparatively late from Asia Minor. The popular veneration of Dionysus was opposed to the aristocratic service of Apollo. From frenzied dances and songs at the feasts of Dionysus later came the ancient Greek tragedy and comedy. The Romans have Bacchus.
Pan is the god of forests, patron of herds and shepherds. Has goat legs, beard and horns. A distinctive attribute of Pan is a flute (syringa) in his hands. The Romans have a Faun.
Asclepius is the ancient Greek god of healing. In Rome — Aesculapius.
Amphitrite — the wife of Poseidon, one of the Nereids
Proteus — one of the sea deities of the Greeks. The son of Poseidon, who had the gift to predict the future and change his appearance
Triton — the son of Poseidon and Amphitrite, the herald of the deep sea, trumpeting the shell. In appearance — a mixture of man, horse and fish. Close to the eastern god Dagon.
Eirene — the goddess of the world, standing at the throne of Zeus on Olympus. In ancient Rome, the goddess Pax.
Nike is the goddess of victory. Constant companion of Zeus. In Roman mythology — Victoria
Dike — in Ancient Greece — the personification of divine truth, a goddess hostile to deceit
Tyuhe — the goddess of good luck and a happy occasion. The Romans — Fortune
Morpheus — the ancient Greek god of dreams, the son of the god of sleep Hypnos
Plutos — the god of wealth
Phobos (“Fear”) – son and satellite of Ares
Deimos («Horror») — the son and companion of Ares
Enio — among the ancient Greeks — the goddess of violent war, which causes rage in the fighters and brings confusion into the battle. In Ancient Rome — Bellona
Moira (from the word «share, fate») — the goddess of inevitable fate, three sisters. Their names are Clotho («Spinner» — spins the thread of life), Lachesis («lot, fate» — determines life’s fate), Atropos («inevitable» — cuts the thread of life, after which death occurs). In ancient Rome, Moir was called Parks .
Primordial natural elements of ancient Greek mythology
Chaos – formless universal space that existed at the beginning of the world
Tartarus — gloomy void, part of Chaos
Eros — self-arising in Chaos driving and generating force
Erebus is the primeval mist that appeared from the movements of Tartarus under the influence of Eros. Sometimes Erebus was called the underground kingdom of Hades.
Nyukta — among the ancient Greeks — the goddess-personification of the Night. Appeared from Tartarus
Ether — primeval light, born from Erebus by the power of Eros
Hemera — the divine personification of the Day, created by Erebus and Nyukta
Gaia 9 0004 — Earth, which appeared from the matter of Chaos
Uranus — born of Gaia God of Heaven, the first king of the older generation of gods origin of the gods of Ancient Greece)
The Titans are the second generation of the gods of Ancient Greece, born of the natural elements. The first titans were six sons and six daughters, descended from the connection of Gaia-Earth with Uranus-Sky. Six sons: Kron (Time among the Romans — Saturn), Oceanus (father of all rivers), Hyperion , Kei , Crius , Iapetus . Six daughters: Tefis (Water), Teia (Shine), Rhea (Mother Mountain?), Themis (Justice), Mnemosyne (Memory), Phoebe .
Uranus and Gaia. Ancient Roman mosaic 200-250 A.D.
In addition to the Titans, Gaia gave birth to the Cyclopes and Hecatoncheirs from marriage with Uranus.
Cyclopes — three giants with a large, round, fiery eye in the middle of the forehead. In ancient times, they were the personifications of clouds from which lightning flashes
Hekatoncheirs — “hundred-armed” giants, against whose terrible power nothing can resist. Embodiments of terrible earthquakes and floods.
The Cyclopes and Hekatoncheirs were so strong that Uranus himself was horrified by their power. He tied them up and threw them into the depths of the earth, where they still rage, causing volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. The stay of these giants in the womb of the earth began to cause her terrible suffering. Gaia persuaded her youngest son, Cronos, to take revenge on his father, Ouranos.
Kron cut off the secret oud with a sickle to his father. From the drops of blood of Uranus shed at the same time, Gaia conceived and gave birth to three Erinyes — goddesses of vengeance with snakes on their heads instead of hair. Erinnia’s names are Tisiphone (killing avenger), Alecto (tireless pursuer) and Megara (terrible). From that part of the blood of Uranus that fell not on the ground, but in the sea, the goddess of love Aphrodite was born.
Night-Nyukta in anger at lawlessness Krona gave birth to terrible creatures and deities Tanata (Death), Eridu (Strife), Apatu (Deceit), goddesses of violent death Ker , Hypnos (Son-Ko shmar), Nemesis (Vengeance), Gerasa (Old Age), Charon (carrier of the dead to the underworld).
Power over the world has now passed from Uranus to the Titans. They divided the universe among themselves. Kron instead of the father became the supreme god. The ocean received power over a huge river, which, according to the ideas of the ancient Greeks, flows around the whole earth. Four other brothers Kronos reigned in the four cardinal directions: Hyperion — in the East, Crius — in the south, Iapetus — in the West, Kay — in the North.
Four of the six elder titans married their sisters. From them came the younger generation of titans and elemental deities. From the marriage of Oceanus with his sister Tethys (Water), all earthly rivers and water nymphs-Oceanids were born. The titan Hyperion — («high-walking») took his sister Teia (Shine) as his wife. From them were born Helios (Sun), Selene (Moon) and Eos (Dawn). Stars and four wind gods were born from Eos: Boreas (north wind), Notus (south wind), Zephyr (west wind) and Eurus (east wind). The titans Kay (Celestial Axis?) and Phoebe gave birth to Leto (Night Silence, mother of Apollo and Artemis) and Asteria (Starlight). Kron himself married Rhea (Mother Mountain, the personification of the productive forces of mountains and forests). Their children are the Olympic gods Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon, Zeus.
The titan Crius married the daughter of Pontus Eurybia, and the titan Iapetus married the oceanid Klymene, who gave birth to the titans Atlanta (he holds the sky on his shoulders), the arrogant Menetius, the cunning Prometheus (“thinking before, foreseeing”) and the feeble-minded Epimetheus ( «thinking after»).
Others descended from these titans:
Hesperus — the god of evening and the evening star. His daughters from the night, Nyukta, are the nymphs of the Hesperides, who guard a garden with golden apples on the western edge of the earth, once presented by Gaia-Earth to the goddess Hera at her marriage to Zeus
Charites — goddesses of grace, fun and joy of life. There are three of them — Aglaya («Glee»), Euphrosyne («Joy») and Thalia («Abundance»). A number of Greek writers have charites with other names. In ancient Rome, they corresponded to graces
Muses — nine goddesses of sciences and arts. Calliope (mother of the divine singer Orpheus) — the muse of epic poetry, Euterpe — the muse of lyrics, Erato — the muse of love songs, Melpomene — the muse of tragedy, Thalia — the muse of comedy, Terpsichore — the muse of dances, Clio — the muse of history, Urania — the muse of astronomy and Polyhymnia — muse of sacred hymns.
Hekate is the goddess of moonlight, witchcraft and everything mysterious.
Nereus is the god of a calm sea, happy voyages, wisdom of the sea depths. His daughters are sea nymphs — Nereids .
Phorky — god of the stormy sea and storms. Gorgons, grays, sirens, Echidna and Skilla were considered the children of Phorky in ancient Greek mythology (see the article Monsters of Ancient Greek Mythology).
Keto — the evil goddess of the deep sea, sister and wife of Phorky. Both of them personified the majestic and terrible phenomena of the sea.
Iris — the ancient Greek goddess of the rainbow. Messenger of Zeus’s wife, Hera.
Spirits and magical creatures of ancient Greek mythology
Nymphs — fairies of nature, beautiful girls. Tree nymphs were called dryads , spring nymphs — naiads , mountains — oreads , seas — nereids .
Satyrs are goat-footed forest demons. They love wine and love and therefore constantly hunt for nymphs. Companions of the gods Dionysus and Pan.
Centaurs (centaurs) — demons of mountains and forests with a human torso and the lower part of a horse, violent, uncontrollable temper.
There are many images of evil spirits and deities in the myths of Ancient Greece. You can read about them in the article Monsters of Ancient Greek Mythology.
© The author of the article is the Russian Historical Library.
Greece: six namesakes under one roof
— What do you think is the most common word in Greek? Professor Mikros asked us in a linguistics class.
The audience was lost in thought.
— Water? Bread? Wine? Souvlaki? the students guessed.
I had my own theory. I assumed that probably the most popular Greek word is obscene.
At that time Greek was not familiar to me. The fluent speech was like white noise, which was cut through by the first learned curses like a lightning of recognition. Often, I must say, cut through: the Greeks are emotional people.
Swear words are the stickiest words in any new foreign language. Short, juicy, articulated clearly, loudly and with expression. Tightly memorable. And absolutely useless. It is practically impossible for a foreigner to apply them, because there is nothing more helpless in the world than an oath pronounced with an accent. This is no longer a powerful curse formula, but a pitiful caricature, a verbal caricature that has lost its potency.
It turned out that we were all wrong.
The male name Yorgos is most often found in Greek speech. George. The second most popular Greek word is breathing down the back of the head of the leader of the lexical hit parade. And — here’s a surprise! is also a male name. Janis. John. In our opinion — Vanya.
How did it happen that most of the male population of the country is called Yorgos and Janis?
The fact is that young parents here cannot choose a name for their child. No, it’s an inaccuracy. Anyone has the right to show off. In the event that this is an eccentric nature, cosmopolitan or marginal. A solid member of Greek society, who cares about his good name among colleagues, friends and relatives, considers it a sacred duty to give his first child the name of his father, and the second — the name of his mother. And then, on the third descendant, you can dream up …
But there have been fewer births in Greece in recent decades. This is a general European trend. A typical Greek family consists of parents and two children. When a boy is born, he is assigned a temporary technical article — «baby». Or «baby» if a girl is born.
Then, until the christening, when the name of the newborn is officially announced, dad and mom fight. The meaning of the dispute is whose clan will come out ahead. The disagreements are of a serious nature. Some «babes» and «babies» are already walking and talking with might and main, and the parents have not yet agreed on his name.
“Did you forget that my dad gave us a house? O ungrateful! And you don’t want him to hear how his name will sound in this house?!» the wife shouts to her husband. “I don’t owe him my education,” my husband retorts. — And we live, by the way, on what I earn. What will I tell my father if we give the father-in-law’s name? How can I look him in the eye?! What is your own name, Konstantin, come to your senses! After all, you have the name of your paternal grandfather!”
Sometimes passions escalate to the point that it comes to divorce. But in such difficult situations, the Greeks pull themselves together: do not leave the baby an orphan with living parents. And they agree to an elegant compromise: they give the child a double name. For example, Athanasius Manolis, Thassos Luke, Ariadne Lydia, Urania Spiridula.
Most Greek names exist in male and female versions. Nicholas — Niki, Panagiotis — Panayiota, Levtheris — Eleutheria, Evangelos — Gospels, Angelos — Angeliki. Comfortable! None of the grandparents will be offended. Everything is glued together, it will settle down warmly, in the old fashioned way, with cozy palms of custom.
The first-born will be given the name of the grandfather on the father’s side, the «secondborn» — the name of the grandmother on the father’s side…
And what should a modern Greek woman do to give the names of her parents? I don’t know, I don’t know… A serious question. The most obvious solution is to give birth to a third.
My father-in-law Panagiotis has six brothers. Everyone turned out to be people. Honorable bourgeois, respected by neighbors and friends. Each has two children. Naturally, each brother considered it an honor to fulfill his filial duty. Therefore, in our family there are six Yorgos Konstantopoulos and six Margaret Konstantopoulou. True, it is not difficult to figure out what was the name of their grandmother and grandfather on the father’s side?
Due to such an abundance of Yorgos, incidents constantly happen to us. On common holidays it is impossible to address your husband. Shout: «Yorgos!» — and six namesakes run to you.
Four Yorgos Constantopoulos and three Margheritas Constantopoulou Photo: personal archive
But this is nonsense, a trifle, you think, it bothered five people in vain. But on the registration of our marriage, we took a real risk. The fact is that we called Yorgos’ cousin Yorgos Constantopoulos and his wife Hara as witnesses.
Dimarkhos, i.e. the head of our local Dionysia municipality, invited us to his office, looked through our documents, then took off his glasses and asked his cousin:
— Come here. Get up on the mat.
Then he turned to me:
— Get up here. Near Yorgos. On the rug.
Dimarchos cleared his throat, turned his eyes to the ceiling, and, folding his hands on his chest, in a pious voice of the curate asked piously:
— My dear spouses! Do you want to become a husband and …
— Wait! Khara Konstantopoulou jumped onto the rug like a tigress. — Confusion! This is not the Yorgos! This is my Yorgos!
“Yorgos,” she turned to the correct Yorgos, pushing Dimarkhos into the background. — Are you marrying Ekaterina Fedorova or… Or have you changed your mind!?
Just Pushkin’s «Snowstorm» in the Greek way.
A failed revolution
One may get the wrong impression that the women of our family, that is, the daughters-in-law of Constantopoulos, are meek, like doves, and meek, like lambs. And this is how you live great, they give the right to name their spouse. This is so, but not so. And we had an attempt at a revolution.
Aunt Popi (Penelope) pushed her husband Nikita (Mr. Panagiotis’s younger brother) against the wall and took a promise from him that after the elder Yorgos (the same one with whom I almost got screwed over) the next child, if it was a girl, she would name not Margarita, but Athena, as her late mother was called. Or rather, to be completely frank, it was about a compromise option: Margarita Athena. Otherwise, Nikita would never have agreed.
I have already mentioned that the Greek baby lives without a name until he is named in the church at a certain (at the same time the most solemn) moment of the sacrament of the cross. The day of the christening of the future Margaret Athena has come.
Decoration of the church for the most important event in the life of a Greek Photo: from the personal archive
The temple was decorated with pink balloons and filled with dolls. The font is entwined with flowers. In front of the entrance to the church, baskets with tulle bonbonniere bags with almonds in white glaze were installed — a memorable souvenir for each guest. The people came — not to breathe. Everyone is undressed, perfumed, the mood is upbeat, in the hands of huge elegant bags from the best children’s stores, there is a treat in the tavern, fun, dancing ahead.
The priest turns inquiringly to the godfather to find out the name of the newly baptized:
— Margarita! the godfather exclaims loudly.
— Is that all?!
Popi is shocked. Nikita pretends that he has nothing to do with it, the godfather hides his eyes. The raider cupping of the name endangered both the ceremony itself and Nikita’s marital well-being.
The somewhat upset Penelope was calmed down by the other mothers of Yorgos and Margaret.
The story went down in family annals: the resonance was colossal, Popi didn’t talk to her husband for four months, but… nothing could be changed. The name of grandmother Margarita «sounded» once again. And, by the way, not the last: Eleni, the youngest daughter-in-law, just then became pregnant with a girl … The next Margarita Konstantopoulou.
Mr. Panagiotis loves his brother. But nevertheless, he did not approve of his action:
— Nikita promised! So we had to keep our word. Of course, Popi herself is partly to blame … Nikita heard her quietly calling her daughter Nana … Athena, that is. Nikita thought: since she calls her Nana even before the christening, then after that nothing will be left of Margarita! This he could not allow.
A separate branch of Greek names is antique. Orestes, Alcinous, Odysseus, Themistocles, Aphrodite, Athena, Danae, Eurydice, Persephone, Artemis. Although the ancient names of gods and heroes sound familiar to the Greeks, they nevertheless distinguish something special in them.
Petros is jealous of Menelaus.
— Menelaos… How I love your name! It is so satisfying. Completely fills your mouth!
A sensitive question: how do carriers of pagan names live in the most Orthodox country in the world? In a country where name days are celebrated more than birthdays, where the church works like a registry office, where cremation is prohibited by law, and every morning in schools before classes, students read the Lord’s Prayer?
When do Cleopatras and Jasons celebrate their name days?
Mandatory baptismal meal for children and adults Photo: from personal archive
Greek Orthodoxy is of a special kind. Living here, you begin to understand why the ancient Greeks so quickly and without conflict converted into a new and rather aggressive foreign religion, which was then Christianity.
The answer is simple: the main value is a person. And the details, including which denomination he belongs to, do not matter. This is what Socrates said before Christ.
In general, pagan names were not banned, but en masse brought to the big August feast of All Saints.